Fishman, J. (1998-99) The New Lingusitic Order

Section 10's key points by section

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Fishman, J. (1998-99) The New Lingusitic Order by Mind Map: Fishman, J. (1998-99)  The New Lingusitic Order

1. Fishman suggests that the spread of English is linked to social class, age, gender, and profession

2. Introduction

2.1. This text follows some academic text characteristics: 1) Broad statement about English use 2) Relevant background info about the spread of English globally 3) Debatable points: Is English a "killer language"? // Linguists cannot agree on the future of English 4) Thesis + road map

2.1.1. His thesis: The powerful of English will eventual fade.

2.1.2. Roadmap: a) Only a relatively small group of fortunate people actually use English as their language. b) a globalised world causes regional languages to become more common because of the interactions it involves. c) the dominance of bigger languages has caused local populations to band together in favour of their local language and resist globalisation. 

2.2. This section does not follow all academic text characteristics, so it is popularised: 1) No references to outside sources of statistics 2) Not APA: "percent"; no references 3) Grammar: sentences starting with AND 4) Talking directly to the reader 5) Perhaps summarised background research

3. Love thy neighbour's language

3.1. This section does not follow academic text characteristics. 1) No references, not APA style. 2) Casual words are used.

3.2. The origins of the spread of English is believed to be Colonisation and not Globalisation factors such as Disney or Microsoft.

3.3. Fishman states that English spread throughout Globalisation where the following factors promoted this spread: - International trade - Multinational Corporations - American media & culture (food, fashion, music, sports etc ...) - Internet

3.4. Fishman suggests that the importance of regional language are going to increase because in many developing regions, regional languages play a big role on promoting local agricultural, industrial and economic expansion.

3.5. Limitations: 1) Information in the chart and Do You Speak European may be outdated.

3.6. Why regional languages are spreading? 1) The growth in social interactions, such as regional communication, informal market interaction, migration, 2) The support of organizations and government committees.

4. Home is where the tongue is

4.1. The quote from Bernard Poignant suggests that local population would be closer and be resistant to regionalization and globalization.

4.1.1. More standardized language appear

4.1.1.1. Many movements support the small language to spread For example, in Alaska and American northwest, international discussion groups want to pass Native American languages to the younger population

4.1.2. Using local language is beneficial: 1) better school performance 2) foster participation in local government 3) citizens know more information about their government 4) local language speakers know their culture, history and faith better

4.2. The subsection called "english-everywhere" suggests that the use of English would wane as the native English speaker contains smaller proportion than other language speakers. It supports idea of main section that English spread would calm down and other languages: regional and local language would become popular.

4.3. 1) students who were taught in Navajo have better reading ability than those who were taught in English initially. 2) local languages is also helpful in spread of information to various kinds of people, such as farmers.

5. Looking ahead

5.1. Fishman predicts that English will lose pre-dominance of language, in contrast, regional languages are making progress in multilingual society. In addition, minority languages will extinct in the future.

5.2. In multilingual society: a) Each language has its own functions. The use of different languages based on different circumstance like diverse career fields, partners that we talk with and places we lived in. b) Conflict occurs between different languages for power in political ends and status.

5.3. English lose language dominance: a) English become regionalized - most of people used it as second and third languages. b) English is more widely disliked - English draw a class line among language users - spread between higher social classes.

5.4. Extinction of minority languages: a) fewer speaker b) be squeezed by regional languages and English

5.5. English still uses in various fields, but it can’t long outlive when the status of regional languages arises in the future. a) English covered different areas, such as technology and economy currently. b) Spreading of English didn’t influence France and Germany’s cultural strengths. c) Any tongue could be developed during international communications in different spheres.