Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Traditional Vision

1.1.1. 1.) Views schools as necessary for the traditional values of U.S society.

1.1.2. 2.) Hard work, Family unity, Individual initiative, etc.

1.1.3. 3.) Believe schools should pass on the best of what was and what is.

1.2. Liberal Perspective

1.2.1. 1.) Emphasis on Equality in Education.

1.2.2. 2.) Was popular during FDR presidency.

1.2.3. 3.) Balancing the economic productivity of capitalism.

2. Equality of Opportunity

2.1. 1.

2.1.1. Social Class and educational level correlate with each other which shows a challenge in equality of opportunity.

2.2. 2.

2.2.1. Social stratification is a configuration of families who have different access to anything of value in society at a given point overtime.

2.3. 3.

2.3.1. Race can have direct impact on an individual education and how much he or she receives.

2.4. 4.

2.4.1. Gender differences between men and women in education have been reduced in the last 20 years.

2.5. 5.

2.5.1. Special education needs flexible systems that provide appropriate placements for students with special needs and inclusion which promotes equality of opportunities.

2.6. 6.

2.6.1. Sociologist James Coleman received an extremely large grant to study the relationship between the organizational characteristics of schools and student achievement.

3. Educational Inequality

3.1. 1.) School-centered explanations state that the processes of schools help better understand unequal educational performances.

3.2. 2.) A sociological theory from functionalists believe unequal educational outcomes result in unequal educational opportunities.

3.3. 3.) Cultural differences explain that family differences and cultures has an impact on educational inequality.

3.4. 4.) Schools are a part of a large complex process which shows social inequalities are transmitted through generations.

3.5. 5.) Vast differences in funding between affluent schools and poor schools is an example of educational inequality.

3.6. 6.) Feminists theories believe that schooling can limit educational opportunities and life chances for women.

4. Educational Reform

4.1. 1.) Teacher Education- There needs to be a necessity of teacher educational quality for a competetive U.S. economy and the value of education in a society.

4.2. 2.) Political Reform- Under state takeover, student achievement gains often have fallen short of expectations.

4.3. 3.) School-based reform- Charter schools are public schools that are free from many of the regulations applied to traditional public schools are then held accountable for student performance.

4.4. 4.) School-business partnership- Mark Zuckerburg contributed $100 million to improve education in Newark, New Jersey.

4.5. 5.) Privatization- Low student achievement, hired for-profit companies help manage public schools.

4.6. 6.) School-to-work programs- Intent to extend a vocational emphasis to non-college-bound students for the skills necessary for employment and success.

5. History of U.S. Education

5.1. Reform Movements

5.1.1. 1.) The rise of the common school.

5.1.2. 2.) Opposition to public education.

5.1.3. 3.) Immigration and urbanization of unprecedented proportions.

5.2. Historical Interpretations of U.S Education

5.2.1. 1.) The Democratic-Liberal School.

5.2.2. 2.) The Radical-Revisionist School.

5.2.3. 3.) Conservative Perspectives.

6. Sociological Perspectives

6.1. School and Society relationship

6.1.1. 1.) Schools, organizations and parents help shape children's mind of what socialization is.

6.1.2. 2.) Schools can help what people will do or become in society.

6.1.3. 3.) Schools can make status systems in society without realizing it.

6.2. Three effects of schooling on individuals

6.2.1. 1.) Employment.

6.2.2. 2.) Education and mobility.

6.2.3. 3.) Attitudes and knowledge.

7. Philosophy of Education

7.1. Generic Notation.

7.1.1. Certain concerns and behaviors impact the lives of individuals.

7.2. Key Researchers.

7.2.1. William James and John Dewey.

7.3. Goal of Education.

7.3.1. Is to nurture growth in academics and experiences.

7.4. Role of Teacher.

7.4.1. Encourages, questions, helps, and plans courses of study.

7.5. Method of Instruction.

7.5.1. Formal, individual, whole-group, and group.

7.6. Curriculum.

7.6.1. Needs to be based on the needs and interests of the student.

8. Schools as Organizations

8.1. 1.) Size

8.1.1. Extremely large estimated that more than 55 millions are enrolled in kindergarten through the twelfth grade

8.2. 2.) Governance

8.2.1. 50 different states have authority and responsibility for education.

8.3. 3. Degree of Centralization

8.3.1. Schools are becoming larger, the number of pupils per teacher is decreasing.

8.4. 4. Student Composition

8.4.1. Students are becoming more diverse such as class, gender, ethnicity and ability.

8.5. 5.) Degree of Openess

8.5.1. Give students many opportunities for advancement and multiple components in school.

8.6. 6.) Private Schools

8.6.1. Attract students from families that have a commitment to education.

9. Curriculum and Pedagogy

9.1. 1. Curriculum policy making is state and local matter where the federal government takes an increasingly activist role in education.

9.2. 2. Developmentalist curriculum- Is related to the needs & interests of the student rather than the needs of society.

9.3. 3. The purpose of education is to transmit specific knowledge to students.

9.4. 4. Schools teach a specific curriculum, one that is mandated by the state education department and then implemented within the school.

9.5. 5. Hidden curriculum includes what is taught to students through implicit rules & messages as well as through what is left out of the formal curriculum.

9.6. 6. Modern functionalist theory- Stresses the roles of the schools in preparing students for the roles required in a modern society.