My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Philosophy of Education

1.1. Generic Notions (page 187-188)

1.1.1. Educators should start with needs and interests of students.

1.1.2. Child should participate in planning the course of study.

1.1.3. Educators should depend on experiential learning.

1.2. Key Researchers (page 186)

1.2.1. George Sanders Pierce

1.2.2. William James

1.2.3. John Dewey

1.3. Goal of Education

1.3.1. Schools should prepare children for a democratic society.

1.3.2. Schools should be a part of social reform.

1.3.3. Schools should balance the needs of society and the needs of individuals.

1.4. Role of Teacher

1.4.1. Teacher is a facilitator instead of an authoritarian figure.

1.4.2. Teacher writes and implements curriculum.

1.4.3. The teacher encourages, offers suggestions, and questions the students as a way to help students learn.

1.5. Method of Instruction

1.5.1. Progressive teachers use the inquiry method of instruction.

1.5.1.1. Children begin by asking questions about a topic they would like to learn about.

1.5.2. Children learn individually and in groups.

1.5.2.1. Children are able to converse with one another and work in groups to complete their work.

1.5.3. Field trips and projects that relate to the course of study are also part of progressive education.

1.6. Curriculum

1.6.1. Integrated curriculum

1.6.1.1. Subjects are intertwined with one another.

1.6.2. Curriculum changes as children's interests and needs change.

2. Equality of Opportunity

2.1. African Americans

2.1.1. White students outperform African American students in both reading and math in ages 9, 13, and 17. (pages 345-347)

2.1.2. The achievement gaps between African Americans and white students has increased since 1988.

2.1.2.1. Although there have been federal attempts to reduce these gaps, they have been unsuccessful. (Goals 2000 & NCLB)

2.1.3. African American students enter kindergarten with less reading and mathematics skills than their white peers.

2.1.3.1. Programs such as Head Start have been created in an attempt to lessen these gaps.

2.1.4. African American students fall behind white students in educational achievement.

2.1.4.1. African American students are more likely to have less challenging curriculum, less experienced teachers, and less likely to be in advanced classes.

2.2. Coleman Study

2.2.1. Borman and Dowling found that the racial/ethnic and social class composition of a individual's school is 1 3/4 times more important than an individual's race/ethnicity or social class for understanding educational outcomes.

2.2.1.1. Where a student goes to school is usually related to that student's race and socioeconomic background. However, the racial and socioeconomic composition of a school has more of an impact on student's achievement than an individual's race and class.

2.2.2. Borman and Dowling believe that the high levels of segregation in the US need to be eliminated in order to see any improvements.

3. History of U.S. Education

3.1. Education for Women and African-Americans (page 68-69)

3.1.1. 1) Through 19th century, education for women was very limited

3.1.1.1. Usually their education consisted of rudimentary literacy and numeracy

3.1.2. 2) By the middle of the 19th century, many girls attended elementary school and even secondary schools

3.1.2.1. 1821- Emma Willard opened Troy Female Seminary. Curriculum included mathematics, science, history and geography. In following years, other female reformers opened schools for females. (Catharine Beecher & Mary Lyon)

3.1.2.1.1. Entry requirements and level of instruction were the same for men and women at these schools.

3.1.3. 3) Although education for women was expanding preceding the Civil War, education for African-Americans was severely limited.

3.1.3.1. The teaching of reading and writing to slaves in the South was forbade because the people feared that literacy bred insubordination and revolution. (Nat Turner)

3.1.3.1.1. In the North, African-American's education was usually of inferior quality and separate from mainstream public school, if provided at all by public.

3.1.4. 4) In 1846, Benjamin Roberts filed a legal suit in Boston for his daughter to attend a segregated school.

3.1.4.1. As a result of the case, African-Americans were encouraged to establish their own schools. Usually these were administered by their churches and party aided through abolitionists funds.

3.1.4.1.1. In 1863, Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which resulted in the freedom of four million slaves.

3.2. Democratic-Liberal School (page 83)

3.2.1. 1) Committed to providing equality of opportunity for all.

3.2.1.1. "Each period of educational expansion involved the attempts of liberal reformers to expand educational opportunities to larger segments of the population."

3.2.2. 2) Ellwood Cubberly, Merle Curti, and Lawrence Cremin are historians who all hold this view

3.2.2.1. "Both Cubberly and Curti have portrayed the Common School Era as a victory for democratic movements and the first step in opening U.S education to all."

3.2.2.1.1. Cremin held the belief that "as more students from diverse backgrounds went to school for longer periods of time, the goals of education became more diverse, with social goals often becoming as or more important than intellectual ones."

3.2.3. 3) Democratic-Liberals tend to interpret U.S. educational history optimistically.

3.2.3.1. Democratic-Liberals believe that the U.S. educational system must continue to move closer to both equity and excellence without forsaking one or the other.

4. Curriculum and Pedagogy

4.1. Developmentalist Curriculum

4.1.1. Student Centered

4.1.1.1. Related to students' needs and interests rather than society's

4.1.2. Progressive

4.1.2.1. Originated from John Dewey's writings

4.1.2.1.1. Related schooling to life of child

4.1.3. Flexible

4.1.3.1. What was taught and how it was taught

4.1.4. Weakly classified

4.1.4.1. Integrated subjects

4.2. Functionalist Theory

4.2.1. Students must become competent members of a democratic society.

4.2.2. Role of curriculum is to give students knowledge, language, and values required to ensure a stable society.

4.2.3. Instead of students memorizing facts, they are taught how to learn.

4.2.4. Functionalists also believe that schools should teach values and norms that are necessary to society.

4.2.5. Students are taught to base opinions off of knowledge instead of tradition.

5. Schools as Organizations

5.1. State Senator

5.1.1. Clay Scofield

5.2. House of Representatives

5.2.1. Will Ainsworth

5.3. State Superintendent

5.3.1. Thomas R. Bice

5.4. Representative on State School Board

5.4.1. Cynthia Sanders McCarty

5.5. Local Superintendent

5.5.1. John Mullins

5.6. Local School Board

5.6.1. Judy Elrod

5.6.2. BC Maze

5.6.3. Wayne Trimble

5.6.4. Susan LeSueur

5.6.5. Chuck Reynolds

5.7. France's Education System (page 226)

5.7.1. Central government controls the classroom

5.7.2. There have been two public school systems- for regular people and for the elite. Although there have been efforts to end this, they have not been very successful.

5.7.3. What a student does after school is related to their social class background.

5.7.3.1. The majority of students complete a type of post-secondary occupational education.

6. Sociological Perspectives

6.1. Functional Theory (page 117-118)

6.1.1. 1) Stresses interdependence of social system

6.1.2. 2) Most educators and reformers base their suggestions on functional theories

6.1.3. 3) Emphasis on values and cohesion

6.1.3.1. Emile Durkheim- set tone for how present-day functionalists approach study of education

6.1.3.1.1. http://sociology.about.com/od/Sociological-Theory/a/Functionalist-Theory.htm

6.2. Effects of Schooling

6.2.1. 1) Knowledge and Attitudes

6.2.1.1. More years of schooling leads to greater knowledge and social participation

6.2.1.1.1. Recent research shows that "in schools where students are compelled to take academic subjects and where there is consistent discipline, student achievement levels go up." (p. 121)

6.2.2. 2) Teacher Behavior

6.2.2.1. Teachers have huge impact on student learning and behavior.

6.2.2.1.1. "Teachers are models for students and, as instructional leaders, teachers set standards for students and influence student self-esteem and sense of efficacy." (p. 124)

6.2.3. 3) Student Peer Groups and Alienation

6.2.3.1. Student cultures shape students' educational experiences

6.2.3.1.1. Student subcultures continue after high school: careerists, intellectuals, strivers, and unconnected

7. Politics of Education

7.1. Liberal (page 24)

7.1.1. 1) Liberal view originated in 20th century from the works of John Dewey

7.1.1.1. All about John Dewey: http://www.iep.utm.edu/dewey/

7.1.2. 2) Liberals place heavy emphasis on equality, especially equality of opportunity.

7.1.2.1. Believe that role of government is to ensure fair treatment of all citizens, and decrease gap in richest and poorest citizens.

7.1.2.1.1. Liberal perspective believes that schools have limited the life chances of poor and minority children. Because of this, underachievement is a problem. (page 29)

7.1.3. 3) Liberals believe that individuals start school with different chances, and therefore some individuals have more advantages than others.

7.1.3.1. Society must attempt to equalize playing field so students from disadvantaged backgrounds have a better chance. page - 28

7.2. Progressivism

7.2.1. Difference between traditional and progressive schooling: http://www.wingraschool.org/who/progressive.htm

7.2.2. 1) Integral part of democratic society

7.2.3. 2) View schools as central to solving social problems

7.2.3.1. Progressives believe that schools play a role in making things better (page 27)

7.2.4. 3) Essential for development of individual potential

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. Cultural Deprivation Theories

8.1.1. Working class families lack resources, such as books, and are at a disadvantage when they arrive at school.

8.1.1.1. Critics say that this theory takes the responsibility for educational success or failure away from schools and places it on the parents.

8.1.2. Cultural deprivation theorists believe that the working class have a "deprived" culture, one that lacks the values of the middle class.

8.1.2.1. Middle class values hard work and sees the importance of schooling.

8.1.2.2. Working class rejects hard work and does not see the importance of schooling.

8.1.3. Because of children's deprivation, they have not received the required skills to succeed in school.

8.1.3.1. Head Start is a preschool program that helps working class children learn these skills before they go to school.

8.1.3.2. Head Start gets parents involved in their child's schooling.

8.2. Curriculum and Ability Grouping

8.2.1. Educational achievement differences don't only happen in separate schools. These differences can happen in the same school.

8.2.2. In elementary schools, students are placed into reading groups and separate classes based on standardized test scores, teacher recommendations, and sometimes race, class, or gender.

8.2.2.1. Elementary students in different classes receive basically the same curriculum, but it may be taught at a slower pace or taught with different expectations from the teacher.

8.2.3. In high schools, students are placed into classes based on their ability levels and curriculum.

8.2.3.1. Students within the same school could be receiving a completely different type of education.

8.2.4. In curriculum grouping, lower tracks are more likely to have teacher-directed classrooms with rote learning and fact-based evaluation.

8.2.4.1. Higher tracks are more likely to have student-centered classrooms with discussion and thinking-based evaluation. (progressive)

9. Educational Reform and School Improvement

9.1. School-Based Reforms

9.1.1. School Choice

9.1.1.1. Intersectional Choice- include both private and public schools. Tuition vouchers are given to students to attend private schools.

9.1.1.2. Intrasectional Choice- only public schools. Students are allowed to attend school outside of their district.

9.1.1.3. Intradistrict Choice- any option available to students within his or her district. For example, choice of curriculum.

9.1.2. Choice programs increase educational opportunities for minority students. Parents with the ability to choose are usually more satisfied with their child's education.

9.1.3. Charter Schools

9.1.3.1. There are nearly 3,700 charter schools that serve 1,076,964 students across the globe.

9.1.3.2. There is a waiting list for 70% of charter schools.

9.1.3.3. Charter schools are public schools that are free from regulations.

9.1.3.3.1. Held accountable for student's performance.

9.1.3.3.2. Self-governing institutions that have control over their curriculum, instruction, staff, etc.

9.1.4. Tuition Vouchers

9.1.4.1. Provide low-income parents with the same choice as middle-class parents.

9.1.4.2. Provide better learning environments for low-income students.

9.1.4.3. Urban public schools will be forced to improve or shut down.

9.1.4.3.1. Results in higher student achievement in urban schools.

9.1.5. School choice can lead to improvement in individual schools, but choice will most likely not result in the overall improvement of U.S. education.

9.2. School Finance Reforms

9.2.1. In 1970, Robinson v. Cahill was filed against the state of New Jersey for unequal funding which resulted in failure to provide all students with a "thorough and efficient" education.

9.2.1.1. http://www.schoolfunding.info/states/nj/lit_nj.php3

9.2.2. In 1990, court ruled that more funding was required for the children in poor school districts.

9.2.2.1. Funding was equalized between urban and suburban districts.

9.2.2.2. Extra funding was also to be distributed in order to eliminate disadvantages with low-income students.

9.2.3. In 1998, the state implemented supplemental programs such as preschools.

9.2.4. In 2009, the New Jersey Supreme Court found a new funding formula that allocated funding to districts based on student needs.

9.2.5. Though education reforms have potential to improve schools for poor and minority students, alone they are limited in reducing achievement gaps.

9.2.5.1. There are factors outside of school that attribute to these achievement gaps in students.