My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Liberal

1.1.1. Liberals believe the state (government) must intercede to ensure the fair treatment of all and that social problems are often the result of societal rather than individual or group forces.

1.1.2. Liberals stress the school's role in providing the necessary education to ensure that all students have an equal opportunity to succeed in society.

1.1.3. The liberal perspective argues that individual students or groups of students begin school with different chances;some groups have more advances than others.

1.2. Traditional

1.2.1. View the schools as necessary to the transmission of the traditional values of U.S. society.

1.2.2. believe the schools should pass on the best of what was and what is; comparing the two.

1.2.3. Traditional visions encompasses the right liberal to the conservative spectrums.

2. Schools of Organizations

2.1. Major stakeholders in Madison County

2.1.1. U.S. Representative-Rep. Mo Brooks

2.1.2. Governor-Robert Bentley (R)

2.1.3. State Senators-Sen. Bill Holzclaw (R-2)

2.2. Comparisons of Education to the United States

2.2.1. The education system in France is designed to produce an academic elite compared to the sytem in the United States.

2.2.2. During the late twentieth century, some experts thought that the educational system in Japan was exemplary when compared to the educational system in the United States.

2.2.3. The German educational system selects and sorts its children at a relatively young age and tracks them into a tripartite system of secondary education

2.2.4. In recent years, education experts have focused their attention on the high level of student achievement in Finland.

2.2.5. In Great Britain all schools were private and wealthy families often hired tutors and for poor children there was no schooling.

2.2.6. The Former Sovient Union,, the purpose of the educational system was to create the "new Soviet man and woman". These new men and woman were to become the leaders of the proletarian revolution that would transform the Soviet Union.

3. History of Education

3.1. The Age of Reform

3.1.1. In the decades following 1815, groups of reformers emerged. These men and women often lacked higher education and did not hold public offices.

3.1.2. By 1862, Congress passed the Morrill Act, which authorized the use of public money to establish public land grant universities, resulting in the establishment of large state universities.

3.1.3. In 1868, the Freedman's Bureau helped to establish historically Black Colleges, including Howard University and Hampton Institute.

3.2. The Democratic-Liberal School

3.2.1. Democratic-Liberals historians suggested that each period of educational expansion attempts to expand educational opportunities to larger segment of the population

3.2.2. For Lawrence Cemlin, educational history in the United States involved both expansion of opportunity and purpose.

3.2.3. believe that the U..S. one or the other too dramatically.educational system must move closer to equity and education, without sacrificing

4. Sociological Perspectives

4.1. Effects of Schooling on Indivduals

4.1.1. It is found that the higher the social class background of the student, the higher his or her achievement.

4.1.2. Women with professional degrees , on average, earned considerably less than men with college degrees.

4.1.3. The number of years of education is one measure of educational attainment, but where people go to school also affects their mobility.

4.2. Theoretical Perspectives

4.2.1. In Functional theories, view society as a kind of machine, where one part articulates with another to produce the dynamic energy required to make society work.

4.2.2. From a conflict point of view, schools are similar to social battlefields, where students struggle against teachers, teachers against administrators, and so on.

4.2.3. The processes by which students are labeled gifted or learning disabled are important to analyze from the Interactional Theories point of view because such processess carry them with

5. Philosophy of Education

5.1. Pragmatism

5.1.1. The founders are George Sanders Peeirce, William James, and John Dewy. There are European philosophers that might also be classified as pragmatists such as Frances Bacon, John Locke, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau.

5.1.2. Goal of Education-Dewey believed that the schools should balance the needs of society and community on one hand and the needs of the individual on the other .

5.1.3. Role of the teacher-The teacher is no longer the authoritarian figure but is there to encourage, offer suggestions, questions, and helps plan and implement courses of study. The teacher also writes curriculum and must have command of several disciplines in order to create and implement curriculum.

5.1.4. Methods of Instruction-Dewey proposed that children learn both indiviidually and in groups. He believed that children should start their mode of inquiry by posing questions about what they want to know.

5.1.5. Curriculum-It was an integrated curriculum; The curriculum is to act as a bridge to increase students achievement and engage them, a relevant curriculum.

5.1.6. Generic notions-The notion that children were active, organic beings, growing and changing, and thus required a course of study that would reflect their particular stages of development.

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. Social Meliorist Curriculum (historical)

6.1.1. Stresses the role of the curriculum in moving students to become aware of societal problems and active in changing the world.

6.1.2. This curriculum resulted in the organization of the curriculum into distnct tracks.

6.1.3. In the social efficiency curriculum there may be strong classification between academic and vocational curricula, with students taking the majority of their courses in one area or the other, or weak classification, with students taking courses in both areas.

6.2. Functionalist Curriculum

6.2.1. The sociology of the curriculum concentrates on the function of what is taught in schools and its relationship to the role of schools within society.

6.2.2. In this curriculum, the role of the curriculum is to give the students the knowledge, language, and values to ensure social stability, for without a shared common culture social order is not possible.

6.2.3. The curriculum had to change to meet the new requirements of the modern world. In this respect, the schools began to move away from the teaching of isolated facts through memorizationto to the general task of teaching students how to learn.

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. African American Educational Achievements

7.1.1. 84% of African Americans graduated from high school and 19.9 % received a bachelor's degree.

7.1.2. African American students still lag behind white students in educational achievement and attainment despite improvements by minority students.

7.1.3. From 1973 to 1986 the gaps in reading and mathematics between 13 year old African Americans and Hispanics and whits narrowed then increased from 1986 to 1999.

7.1.4. Reading skills at start of kindergarten for African Americans is 34 percentile rank.

7.1.5. The percentile rank of African Americans mathematics skills at the start of kindergarten is 27 percentile rank.

7.2. The Coleman Study

7.2.1. Coleman and his colleagues argued that private schools were more effective learning environments than public schools because they place more emphasis on academics activities and because private schools enforce discipline in a way that is consistent with student achievement.

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. The Functionalist Theory of Unequal Educational Achievement

8.1.1. Functionalists believe that the role of schools is to provide a fair and meritocratic selection process for sorting out the best and brightest individuals, regardless of family background.

8.1.2. Functionalists expect that the schooling process will produce unequal results, but these results ought to be based on individual differences between students, not on group differences.

8.1.3. Functionalists believe that unequal educational outcomes are the result, in part, of unequal educational opportunities.

8.2. One School Centered Explanation--School Financing

8.2.1. Public schools are financed through a combination of revenues from local, state, and federal sources.

8.2.2. Property taxs are based on the value of property in local communities and therefore is a proportional tax.

8.2.3. More affluent ccommunities are able to provide more per pupil spending than poorer districts, often at a proportionately less burdensome rate than in poorer communities.

9. Educational Reform

9.1. School based Reform-School to Work Programss

9.1.1. In the 1990s, school business partnerships became incorporated into school to work programs.

9.1.2. Every state and locally created school to work system had to contain three core elements: classoom instruction based on high academic and business defined occupational skill standards.

9.1.3. Bill Clinton signed the School to Work Opportunity act and this law provided see money to states and local partnerships of business labor governemnt and education to name a few.

9.2. Societal Reforms

9.2.1. Educational reform in the United States from the 1980s to 2012had empahazise the excellence side the ecellencne

9.2.2. Despite the efforts of school choice and charter evidence does not overwhemingly support the clains of their advocates for a reduction inequality.

9.2.3. Daling-Hammonnd concludes that the U.S. education system will continue to fail many of its students at great cost to society as a whole if it does not equalize access to educational opportunity and support meaningful learning.Daling-Hammonnd concludes that the U.S. education system will continue to fail many of its students at great cost to society as a whole if it does not equalize access to educational opportunity and support meaningful learning.