My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Perspective

1.1.1. Charles Darwin

1.1.2. Conservative

1.1.3. Free Market Economy

1.2. Vision

1.2.1. Traditional

1.2.2. family unity

1.2.3. Individual initiative

2. History of U.S. Education

2.1. Reform Movement

2.1.1. Women's Rights

2.1.2. opposition of public education

2.1.3. First Industrial Revolution

2.2. Historical Interpretations

2.2.1. William Bennett

2.2.2. The Closing of the American Mind (1987)

2.2.3. Diane Ravitch (1977)

3. Sociological Perspectives

3.1. Theoretical Perspectives of relationships between school and society

3.1.1. Fuctional Theories

3.1.2. Conflict Theories

3.1.3. Interactional Theories

3.2. Effects of Schooling on individuals

3.2.1. Knowledge and Attitudes

3.2.2. Employment

3.2.3. Education and Mobility

3.2.4. Inside the Schools

3.2.5. Teacher Behavior

3.2.6. Student Peer Groups and Alienation

4. Philosophy of Education - Progressivism

4.1. generic notions - instrumentalism and experimentalism

4.2. Francis Bacon (1561-1626) John Locke (1632-1704)

4.3. goal of education - to be the central institution for societal and personal improvement, and to do so by balancing a complex set of processes.

4.4. role of teacher- teacher is no longer the authoritarian figure from which all knowledge flows; rather the teacher assumes the peripheral position of facilitator. Teacher: encourages, offers suggestions, questions, and helps plan and implement courses of study

4.5. method of instruction - individually and in groups, field trips and projects

4.6. Core Curriculum or integrated curriculum

5. Schools of Organizations

5.1. Marshall County District 27 House of Representative: Will Ainsworth

5.2. State of Alabama Superintendent: Thomas R Bice Ed.D.

5.3. Marshall County District 9 State Senator

5.4. Boaz AL Superintendent: Mark Isley

5.5. State of Alabama District 6 school board - Larry Stutts

5.6. City of Boaz School Board

5.7. Comparison

5.8. ELEMENTS OF CHANGE

5.8.1. Conflict

5.8.2. New Behaviors

5.8.3. Team Building

5.8.4. Processes and content are interrelated

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. Social efficiency curriculum

6.1.1. Progressive Education

6.1.2. teach attitude and behavior required in the workplace

6.2. Fuctionalist Theory

6.2.1. knowledge

6.2.2. language

6.2.3. values

6.3. Conflict Theory

6.3.1. reproduce the original social order

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. The Coleman Study: Response to Coleman: Round one

7.1.1. The student body composition has such a major effect on student learning

7.1.2. On average, students who attended schools that were predominantly middle class were more likely to do better on test of achievement that students who attended school where middle-class students were not a majority

7.1.3. Ron Edmonds of Harvard University: argued strongly that all students could learn and that differences between schools had a significant impact on student learning.

7.2. Educational Achievement and Attainment

7.2.1. Females achieve at higher levels in reading at ages 9, 13, and 17

7.2.2. Females achieve at slightly higher levels in mathematics at age 9 and at lower levels at ages 13 and17

7.2.3. Females achieve at lower levels in science at ages 9, 13, and 17

7.3. Class

7.3.1. different social classes have different educational experiences. The more wealthier families are more likely to further education than lower class due to educational expenses. There is direct correlation between parental income and child's performance on test.

7.4. Race

7.4.1. Effects how much education a child is likely to achieve. Minorities do not receive the same educational experience as whites.

7.5. Gender

7.5.1. In the past women were less likely to attain the same level of education as men. Females are less likely to drop out of school than males. Females are more likely to have a higher level of reading proficiency than males. Males out perform females in math.

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. Conflict Theorists:

8.1.1. the role of schooling is to reproduce rather than eliminate inequality,

8.1.2. the fact that educational outcomes are to a large degree based on family background is fully consistent with this perspective.

8.1.3. do not believe that equality of opportunity is a sufficient goal.

8.2. Functionalist

8.2.1. the role of the schools is to provide a fair and meritocratic selection process for sorting out the best and brightest individuals, regardless of family backgrounds

8.2.2. vision of a just society is one where individual talent and hard work based on universal principles of evaluation are more important than ascriptive characteristics based on particularistic methods of evaluation.

8.2.3. expect that the schooling process will produce unequal results, but theses results ought to be based on individual differences between students, not on group differences.

8.2.4. believe that unequal educational outcomes are the result, in part , of unequal educational opportunities.

8.3. 4 School Centered Explanations

8.3.1. School Financing

8.3.1.1. Jonathan Kozol (1991) documented the vast differences in funding between affluent and poor districts.

8.3.1.2. More affluent communities are able to provide more per-pupli spending than poorer districts

8.3.1.3. Children from lower socioeconomic backgrounds do not receive equality of opportunity, at least in terms of funding.

8.3.2. Effectvie School Research

8.3.2.1. Coleman and Jencks - differences in school resources and quality do not adequately explain between-school differences in academic achievement was viewed by teachers as a mixed blessing.

8.3.3. Between School Differneces - Curriculum and Pedagogic Practices

8.3.3.1. schools do affect educational outcomes, at times, independent of extra-school factors

8.3.3.2. Bernstein(1990) - suggested that schools in working-class neighborhoods are far more likely to have authoritarian and teacher-directed pedagogic practices, and to have a vocatoinally or social efficiency curriculum at the secondary level. Middle-class are more likely to have less authoritarian and more student-centered pedagogic practices and to have a humanistic liberal arts college preparatory curriculum at the secondary level. Upper-class students are more likely to attend elite private schools, with authoritarian pedagogic practices and a classical-humanistic college preparatory curriculum at the secondary level.

8.3.4. Within-School Differences: Curriculum and Ability Grouping

8.3.4.1. Elementary - divided into reading groups and separate classes based on teacher recommendations, standardized test scores, and sometimes ascriptive characteristics such as race, class, or gender.

9. Educational Reform

9.1. Teacher Education

9.1.1. Carnegie and Holmes Report

9.1.1.1. Agree that overall problems in education cannot be solved without corresponding changes in teacher education

9.1.1.2. Teacher education programs must be upgraded in terms of their intellectual rigor and focus

9.1.1.3. Career ladders that recognize differences in knowledge, skill, and commitment must be created for teachers.

9.2. Takeovers

9.2.1. Takeover is, in appropriate cases, a necessary expression of a state's constitutional responsibility for public education.

9.2.2. Can help create a healthy environment in which the local community can address a school district's problems

9.2.3. Can provide a good opportunity for state and local decision makers to combine resources and knowl

9.3. School Finance

9.3.1. Funding was equalized between urban and suburban school districts

9.4. Full Service and Community Schools

9.4.1. Educate not only the whole child but also the whole community