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Biodiversity by Mind Map: Biodiversity
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Biodiversity

How is biodiversity quantified?

Indices

Shannon, Measure if information entropy

Simpson, The probability that two random species drawn from the populatiio nwiol be the same.

Properties

Richness

Evenness

Social issues

Does biodiversity benefit society?

Pros

Cons

How might diversity affect society?

benefits, food, energy, ecosystem services, self preservation, proactive better than wait-and-see...why?, aesthetics

costs, with the growth of human societies, its only a matter of time before losses occur anyway...lots of 'wasted' money

Biological issues

test  

Over which spatial and temporal scales should we measure diversity?

Alpha

Beta

Gamma

How is diversity distributed though space and time?

Global patterns, latitude, More species in the tropics than at higher latitudes, elevation, Fewer species at high elevation than low elevation

Local Patterns, Number of species increases with area, Equilibrium models, Island biogeography, Assumptions, Colonization and extinction rates are equivalent for all source pool species, Probability of colonization is inversely proportional to the isolation or distance from the source pool, Population size of a species is proportional to the island size, Probability of extinction is inversely proportional to island size, Colonization and extinction is independent of the species composition on the island, Aside from area and distance, islands have the same capacities to affect colonization and extinction, assumes linear immigration and extinction, Caveats, Target effect, Larger islands collect more species, Rescue effect, Islands closer to source pool have reduced extinction rates, Habitat diversity model, Assumptions, Species specialize on habitat types, Minimum size for a habitat for a species to establish, Dynamic models, Succession, Stages, Pioneer, Traits, High fecundity, High dispersal potential, Rapid population growth, Low competitive ability, Function in environment, Alter/stabilize soil, Shade soil, Add nutrients to the soil, Self defeating for pioneers, Climax, Traits, higher competitive ability, longer lived, more efficient growth, higher productivity (system wide), Models, Facilitation, Predictable sequence, earlier colonists make way for later species, Inhibition, Initial colonists suppress arrival of later species, Tolerance, lottery model, Types, Primary, Secondary, Disturbance, frequency, pulse, press, intensity, catastrophic, moderate, intermediate disturbance hypothesis, low, Examples, Sand dunes, Glaciers, Old fields, Alternative community states

What is the function of biodiversity?

Are diverse systems better systems?

What types of diversity are important?

Genetical

Species

ecosystem/habitat

Policy

How might we manage diversity?

Flagships

Inidicator

keystone species

Umbrella

Habitat

Humans are slow to change...how to convince others not to have what others have had

Should money be devoted to preserving biodiversity?

Pros, natural rates of evolution might not be able to keep pace with rates of anthropogenic change

Cons, evolution is our friend, new species will replace the old anyway, historically, biodiversity has fluctuated and recovered