The modals

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The modals by Mind Map: The modals

1. Used to

1.1. Uses

1.1.1. Past situation that no longer exists

2. May

2.1. Uses

2.1.1. Polite request (only with I or we)

2.1.2. Formal permission

2.1.3. 50% or less certainty

3. Might

3.1. Uses

3.1.1. 50% or less certainty

3.1.2. Polite request (rate)

4. Should

4.1. Uses

4.1.1. Advisability

4.1.2. 90% certainty (expectation)

5. Ought to

5.1. Uses

5.1.1. Advisability

5.1.2. 90% certainty (expectation)

6. Had better

6.1. Uses

6.1.1. Advisability with threat of bad result

7. Be supposed to

7.1. Uses

7.1.1. Expectation

7.1.2. Unfulfilled expectation

8. Must

8.1. Uses

8.1.1. Strong necessity

8.1.2. Prohibition (negative)

8.1.3. 95% certainty

9. Have to

9.1. Uses

9.1.1. Necessity

9.1.2. Lack of necessity (negative)

10. Have got to

10.1. Uses

10.1.1. Necessity

11. Will

11.1. Uses

11.1.1. 100% certainty

11.1.2. Willingness

11.1.3. Polite request

12. Be going to

12.1. Uses

12.1.1. 100% certainty (prediction)

12.1.2. Definite plan (intention)

12.1.3. Unfulfilled intention

13. Can

13.1. Uses

13.1.1. Ability/possibility

13.1.2. Informal permission

13.1.3. Informal polite request

13.1.4. Impossibility (negative only)

14. Could

14.1. Uses

14.1.1. Past apility

14.1.2. Polite request

14.1.3. Suggestion (affirmative only)

14.1.4. 50% or less certainty

14.1.5. Impossibility (negative only)

15. Be able to

15.1. Uses

15.1.1. Ability

16. Would

16.1. Uses

16.1.1. Polite request

16.1.2. Preference

16.1.3. Repeated action in the past

16.1.4. Polite for "want" (with like)

16.1.5. Unfulfilled wish

17. Shall

17.1. Uses

17.1.1. Polite question to make suggestion

17.1.2. Future with I or we as subject