Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Traditional teaching is too boring and more from the teacher. Teaching is how the student learns and adapt to help them learn. Not the student adapting to the teacher.

2. Conservative because it gives the opportunity to have the best education for the students to be the best they can be.

3. The founders of Progressivism are John Dewey and Francis Parker.

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. Pragmatism

4.1.1. American Philosophy being in the 19th century.

4.1.2. Founders for Pragmatism and key researchers.

4.1.2.1. George Sanders Pierce (1839-1914)

4.1.2.2. Williams James (1842-1910)

4.1.2.3. John Dewey (1859-1952)

4.2. Generic Notion

4.2.1. Dewey's form of Pragmatism

4.2.1.1. Instrumental

4.2.1.2. Experimentalism

4.2.2. Created on new psychology and behaviorism.

4.2.3. Dewey's ideas were influenced by the theory of evolution and by a 18th century optimistic belief in progress

4.2.4. Dewey's ideas about education is referred as Progressive.

4.2.4.1. Experimental Learning

4.2.4.2. Group Learning

4.2.4.3. Children involved in their planning of their course of study.

4.3. Goal of Education

4.3.1. Dewey believed that schools should balance the needs of society and community on one hand and the needs of the individual.

4.3.2. Integrate children into not just type of society, but a democratic one.

4.3.3. Dewey stressed the importance of the school as a place where ideas can be implemented, challenged, and restructured, with the goal of providing students with the knowledge of how to improve social order.

4.4. Role of the Teacher

4.4.1. The teacher is no longer the authoritarian figure form which knowledge flows.

4.4.2. The teacher assumes the peripheral position of a facilitator.

4.4.3. Teacher encourages, offers suggestions, questions, and helps plan and implement course of study.

4.4.4. Teachers write curriculum and have a command of disciplines in order to create and implement curriculum.

4.5. Method of Instruction

4.5.1. Dewey proposed that students learn individually and in groups.

4.5.2. Students would start posing questions about what they want to know.

4.5.3. Problem-solving or inquiry method

4.5.4. Formal instruction

4.6. Curriculum

4.6.1. Follow Dewey's notion of core curriculum, or an integrated curriculum.

4.6.2. Working from the known to unknown.

4.6.3. "Expanding environments"

4.6.4. Progressive educators are not wedded to a fixed curriculum.

4.6.5. Child-centered.

5. Politics of Education

5.1. Everyone should have equal opportunity.

5.2. I like Progressivism because it is more student-center. Students learn when they are more involved and teaching is about the students.

5.3. Progressivism is "learning by doing." I truly believe students learn better when they are more involved.

6. History of U.S. Education

6.1. Brown vs. Board of Education

6.1.1. It declared state laws establishing public schools for blacks and white unconstitutional.

6.2. Horace Mann

6.2.1. Founder of American public schools.

6.3. Plessy vs. Ferguson

6.3.1. uphold state laws requiring racial segregation in public facilities under the doctrine of "separate but equal."

6.4. A major reform movement that won support to make education to all children.

7. Curriculum and Pedagogy

7.1. What is taught by schools?

7.1.1. Schools are required to teach a certain curriculum. It has to be reviewed by the state and implemented within the schools.

7.1.2. Curriculum is defined as an objective and organized body of knowledge to be taught to the students.

7.1.3. Curriculum is simplified and tends to ignore political and social aspects of what is being taught.

7.2. Politics of Curriculum

7.2.1. Questions

7.2.1.1. One of the main questions asked: Who shapes the curriculum?

7.2.1.2. What values are represented?

7.3. Sociology of Curriculum

7.3.1. Focused not just on what is taught, but why is it taught?

7.3.2. Believe that the curriculum of the school includes both what is formally included as the subject matter learn the formal curriculum as well as the informal and hidden curriculum.

8. Schools of Organization

8.1. "Openness"

8.1.1. Arranged

8.1.1.1. Elementary (K-5)

8.1.1.2. Middle School (6-8)

8.1.1.3. High School (9-12)

8.1.2. Schools are made to ensure students have multiple opportunities for their advancement.

8.1.2.1. Advanced diploma

8.1.2.2. Standard diploma

8.1.2.3. Drop Out

8.2. Government

8.2.1. Federal

8.2.1.1. Little money towards education.

8.2.1.2. Little authority when it comes to government of the public school system.

8.2.2. State

8.2.2.1. More money is given to public schools unlike the federal.

8.2.2.2. Maintains curriculum, safety codes, and skills for teaching.

8.2.3. District

8.2.3.1. Majority of funding to schools is by taxpayers.

8.2.3.2. Mandates made are carried out by citizens of a district.

9. Sociological Perspectives

9.1. Helps provide general social patterns in the behavior of particular individuals.

9.2. It encourages everyone to realize that society guides our thoughts and needs.

9.3. Three effects of schooling that have an impact

9.3.1. Technology

9.3.2. Religion

9.3.3. Environment

10. Equality of Opportunity

10.1. Class

10.1.1. Different social classes have different experiences

10.1.1.1. Wealthier family better the education

10.1.1.2. Teachers expect more from the middle and upper class and are given more attention

10.1.1.3. There are more of chance of middle and upper class going to college and earning degrees.

10.2. Students with special needs

10.2.1. Parents tend to pressure the educational system when having a special needs child

10.2.2. Congress passed the Education of all handicapped children in 1975

11. Educational Inequality

11.1. Does schools reproduce inequality?

11.2. Cultural Difference Theories

11.2.1. Students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds face problems in their community due to:

11.2.1.1. Racism

11.2.1.2. Poverty

11.2.1.3. Social and Institutional processes

11.2.2. Working class and non white students

11.2.2.1. Minority oppressed

11.2.2.2. Arrive at school with different cultural dispositions

12. Educational Reform

12.1. No Child Left Behind (NCLB)

12.1.1. Has historically undeserved low income and minority children through curriculum tracking, poor instruction, and low quality teachers in urban schools

12.1.2. Mandates the uniform standards for all students in order to reduce and eventually eliminate the social class and race achievement gap in 2014

12.2. Race to the Top

12.2.1. Grants will aid states while they work to meet the NCLB mandates, improve student outcomes, and eliminate achievement gaps

12.2.2. Many states adopted the common core standards