My Foundation of Education

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My Foundation of Education by Mind Map: My Foundation of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Neo-liberals

1.1.1. Austerity

1.1.1.1. cuts spending on Education

1.1.2. Market Model

1.1.2.1. believes markets solve social problems. Huge supports of charter schools, vouchers for private schools

1.1.3. Individualism

1.1.3.1. believes the individual determines their own future

1.1.4. State intervention

1.1.4.1. believes this ensures the equality of education

1.1.5. Economic prosperity, race, and class

1.1.5.1. Competition between the individuals help promote the schools

1.2. Progressive

1.2.1. Views schools as a way to helps solve social problems, development of individual potential, integral part of a democratic society

2. History of U.S Education

2.1. Post-World War II Equity Era: 1945-1980

2.1.1. College students became more political. They began protesting the Vietnam war and began the Civil Rights Movement

2.1.1.1. This began the integration of schools. Which had a very positive effect towards education in general

2.1.1.2. This also is a point of history when students began thinking about changes and politics

2.1.2. Mid-1960s Education shifted and moved toward the progressive side

2.1.2.1. Tom Hayden at the University of Michigan issued the "Port Huron Statement"

2.1.2.2. Mario Savio at the University of California began protesting rules limiting assembly and demonstrations on campus

2.1.3. Several books were published, criticizing U.S. education

2.1.3.1. "Death at an Early Age" (1967) This assailed the racist practice of the Boston public schools

2.1.3.2. "Children" (1967) This discussed the pedagogical possibilities of open school

2.1.3.3. "Crisis in the Classroom"(1969) argued against bureaucratic, stultifying mindlessness of U.S Education

2.1.4. Great Debate

2.1.4.1. Soviet Union's satellite "Sputnik" race in space

2.1.4.1.1. Motivated the government to raise their educational standards

2.1.5. Equality of Education

2.1.5.1. Brown vs. Board of Education; marked the end of Jim Crowe Laws

2.1.5.2. Milliken vs. Bradley ruled that the Detroit inter district busing plan was unconstitutional

2.1.5.3. Serrano v. Priest viewed state's system of funding unconstitutional

2.2. Democratic-Liberal Schools

2.2.1. Social goals in addition to intellectual goals

2.2.2. Equality for all

2.2.3. rejects Conservative view points

3. Sociology of Education

3.1. Interactional Theories

3.1.1. Critiques and extension of the functional and conflict perspective

3.1.2. Basil Bernstein- has argued that structural aspects of the educational system and the interactional aspects of the system reflect each other

3.1.3. emphasizes structure and process

3.2. Effects of Schooling on Individuals

3.2.1. Employment- Studies show that students who graduate high school will have better greater job opportunities

3.2.2. Tracking- students placed in curricular programs based on students' abilities

3.2.3. Mobility- education can lead to students having the option to move up in their social class, if desired

4. Source: Sadovnik, Alan R., Peter W. Cookson, Jr., and Susan F. Semel. Exploring Education An Introduction to the Foundations of Education. 4th ed. New York: Routledge, 2013. Print.

5. Curriculum, Pedagogy, and the Transmission of Knowledge

5.1. "Humanist Curriculum"

5.1.1. The "humanist curriculum" reflects the idealist philosophy that knowledge of the traditional liberal arts is the cornerstone of an educated citizenry and the the purpose of the education is to present to students what has been thought and written

5.1.2. Focuses on Western Heritage

5.1.3. Argues that all students regardless of their goals should study English, foreign languages, mathematics, history, and science

5.2. "Social Efficiency Curriculum"

5.2.1. The Publication of "Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education" represented a direct contrast to the humanist tradition of the Committee of Ten

5.2.2. The social element of the Cardinal principle became a cornerstone of the progressive movement

5.2.3. The management of the schools involve division of knowledge into strictly defined areas

6. Schools as Organizations and Teacher Professionalism

6.1. Great Britian

6.1.1. Before the nineteenth century, all schools use to be all private. Schooling was done at home.

6.1.2. 1944 the Education Act established a school system

6.1.3. 1979, Margaret Thatcher promised to reform the schools

6.1.4. 1988, Reform Act established a national curriculum and goals.

6.1.5. 1990, England became more concerned with equity than standards.

6.2. Major Stakeholders

6.2.1. Board members of Athens, Al: President- Mr. Russell Johnson, Vice President- Mrs. Beverly Malone, Other members of the board include Mr. Tim Green, Mr. Scott Henry, Mr. James Lucas, Ms. Jennifer Manville, and Dr. Chris Paysinger and superintendent- Dr. Trey Holladay III

6.2.2. State Senators -Richard Shelby and Jeff Sessions; Representatives- Mo Brooks

6.2.3. State School Board: Superintendent Thomas R. Bice, BOARD MEMBERS Governor Robert J. Bentley, President Thomas R. Bice, Ed.D., Secretary and Executive Officer Jeffery Newman, Vice President, District 07 Yvette Richardson, Ed.D., President Pro Tem, District 04 Matthew S. Brown, J.D., District 01 Betty Peters, District 02 Stephanie Bell, District 03 Ella B. Bell, District 05 Cynthia Sanders McCarty, Ph.D., District 06 Mary Scott Hunter, District 08 (http://www.alsde.edu/sites/boe/Pages/home.aspx)

7. Philosophy of Education: Post Modernists

7.1. Goal of Education

7.1.1. wants to achieve understanding, respect, and change

7.2. Curriculum

7.2.1. Educational Theory- mixture of social theory, sociology, and philosophy

7.3. Role of the Teacher

7.3.1. needs to be involved with the students and the community

7.4. Method of Instruction

7.4.1. tends to focus on group projects

7.5. Generic Notions

7.5.1. developed out of dissatisfaction with modernism

7.6. Key researchers

7.6.1. Derrida and Baudrillard- social theorists

8. Equality of Opportunity and Educational Outcomes

8.1. Coleman Study

8.1.1. results showed that students from middle class backgrounds were more likely to do better on achievement tests

8.1.2. Studies revealed that schools that are less bureaucratic and more academically based have better outcomes

8.1.3. Borman and Dowling argue for integration

8.2. educational achievement and attainment of one marginalized population

8.2.1. women were reported at scoring higher on exams than but still have lower success rate of going to college

8.2.2. between 1973 and 1986, the gaps on test scores between 13 year old African Americans, Hispanics, and Whites decreased

8.2.3. These gaps have increased since 1988

9. Explanations of Educational Inequality

9.1. School- Centered Explanation

9.1.1. School financing- Kozol documented vast differences between public schools in affluent suburbs and poor inner cities

9.1.2. The effective school literature argue that characteristics explain student achievement gaps

9.1.2.1. Higher expectations from teachers and administrators

9.1.2.2. strong and effective leadership

9.1.2.3. Accountability of students and teachers

9.1.2.4. monitoring of student learning

9.1.2.5. a high degree of instructional time on task

9.1.2.6. flexibility for teachers and administrators to experiment and adapt to new situations and problems

9.1.3. Studies argue that gaps can also be explained when students are grouped based on curriculum tracking

9.1.4. some argue that the gap can be explained by how middle class parents will request certain teachers for their kids. Whereas, working class parents accept the luck of the draw

9.2. sociological explanation of unequal achievement

9.2.1. 1960 Coleman argued for Equality of Educational Opportunity in the Coleman report

9.2.2. Coleman argued that the difference between the schools explain the gaps in educational achievements

10. Educational Reform and School Improvement

10.1. School to work programs

10.1.1. 1990, school-business partnerships became incorporated into school-to-work programs

10.1.2. May 4, 1990 President Clinton signed the school to work opportunities act of 1994

10.1.3. Every state and locally created school to work system has to contain three core elements 1. school based learning 2. work based learning 3. connecting activities

10.1.4. researchers have suggested that these programs often fail

10.2. School Finance Reforms

10.2.1. 1990 court ruled more funding was needed for the schools

10.2.2. 1993 New York begins battle for equality in schools