Get Started. It's Free
or sign up with your email address
PRAXIS II: PLT 7-12 by Mind Map: PRAXIS II: PLT 7-12

1. Educational theories

1.1. Bloom's Taxonomy

1.1.1. Knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation Evaluation - calls on Ss to use their knowledge to determine what their values and judgments are. E.g. comparative essay about two pieces of literature the Ss read during the term

1.2. Bandura's Social Learning Theory

1.2.1. Modeling interactions to Ss Ss learn reciprocally and reflectively rather than competitively

1.3. Vygotsky's Zone of Proximal Development

1.3.1. Achievement is compelled by an individual working with an individual who has mastered the information Eg. Pairing up low-performing Ss with high-performing Ss

1.3.2. Ss learn from a variety of sources - teachers, Ss who have mastered concepts

1.4. Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development (stages)

1.4.1. Sensorimotor

1.4.2. Preoperational

1.4.3. Operational Ss grasp hard facts Eg. Ss distinguish fact from fiction

1.4.4. Formal Operational unit on poetry- asking Ss to think of an object and give it symbolic meaning Abstract thinking Ss manipulate facts into ideas, questions, and other critical modes of thinking

1.5. Ericksen's Psychosocial Development Theory

1.5.1. a child must experience an emotional crisis to pass from one stage to the next

1.6. Bruner's Constructivist Theory

1.6.1. knowledge is built on prior knowledge teacher must know that Ss have the requisite knowledge to approach increasingly difficult material

1.7. Kohlberg's Moral Stage Development Theory

1.7.1. Preconventional Morality

1.7.2. Conventional Morality

1.8. Dewey's Progressive Theory

1.8.1. fosters long-term learning that is authentic in nature E.g projects, group work, rotating electives, portfolios student-centered

1.9. Watson's Behaviorist Theory

1.9.1. condition Ss to respond in a certain way objective - change in behavior (social or educational) Eg. T reinforces Ss for completing HW, T models appropriate response to criticism, T provides extrinsic motivation

1.10. Thorndike's Instrumental Conditioning Theory

1.10.1. Law of Exercise - conditioned response can be strengthened by repetition Create a consistent environment in which behavior is modified - e.g. assigning a specific task each day ofthe week and rewarding only Ss who accomplish the task

1.10.2. Law of Effect - a response (doing HW) can be strengthened by rewards and weakened by punishments

1.11. Maslow's Theory of Self-Actualization

1.11.1. Ss create their own successes and see the product as a success; Ss recognizes what the self can actually accomplish E.g. student portfolio

1.12. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

1.12.1. physiological, safety, love/belonging, esteem, self-actualization

1.13. Skinner's Theory of Operant Conditioning

1.13.1. condition voluntary behavior through a system of reinforcements

2. Assessments

2.1. Formative

2.1.1. Prior knowledge Eg. Ask Ss to write letter to teacher explaining how they approach a writing assignment

2.1.2. Purposes (1) To gather information about student ability prior to instruction (2) To plan appropriate lessons (3) To determine best instructional methods

2.2. Summative

2.2.1. at the end of a unit to measure what Ss learned from class Eg. multiple choice and essay exam at the end of a unit

2.3. Authentic

2.3.1. Ss demonstrate what they have learned on a topic. Ss can generate their own final project and can be related to the real world. Eg. Ss come up with their own project design and ask teachers for permission to be their advisors Ss demonstrate impact of topic on their lives Eg. Debates, Cooperative learning, Class simulations

2.3.2. Measures how the S understands a topic while giving a chance to explore areas within the topic that they find most useful or interesting. It gives Ss a chance to show what they know.

2.4. Standards-based

2.4.1. Standardized tests Original scores are RAW SCORES; converting a raw score into a score used for comparative purposes results in a SCALED SCORE.

2.5. Norm-referenced

2.5.1. a test that compares Ss knowledge at a given point Eg. T wants to group class by ability so he can vary instruction for all ranges and styles of learners while providing Ss a chance to work a pace similar to their own on certain projects. T can vary instruction for groups of Ss who are at similar but are at different levels of understanding or ability E.g. IQ test

2.6. Criterion-based

2.6.1. Purpose to determine whether the objectives, or criteria of learning, designed by the teacher have been met. Eg. T finished history unit and designs a test that utilizes the objectives he designed for each lesson in the unit Eg. test designed by the publisher if a textbook a T used in the unit

2.6.2. Rubric

2.7. Examples

2.7.1. conferences share feedback on student achievement to help them group discuss progress, reflect on accomplishments, and establish personal goals

2.7.2. portfolios collect S work throughout the year to analyze what the S has learned

2.7.3. beginning year test allows Ts to differentiate instruction; group lower level and higher level Ss

2.7.4. informal assessments one-on-one conferences to check in with Ss pop quizzes daily journals T asks questions to individual Ss to gauge understand

2.7.5. reflective thinking about work over the year (in portfolios)

2.8. Peer feedback

2.8.1. Disadvantages Ss may not be able to identify problem areas Ss may be shy about giving feedback social issues - if a S doesn't like peer, will give bad grade social issues - Ss might want to give peer a good grade to remain friends

2.8.2. great teaching tool and learning opportunity for Ss

2.9. Metacognition

2.9.1. Eg. Ss reflect on experiences where they feel their rights were compromised, Ss discuss how they feel about their rights at school, Ss do oral reports that discuss a time when they felt discrimination

2.9.2. create relevant personalized assignment Eg. regular journaling, trial and error experiments

2.9.3. Ss think about their thinking Ss analyze and reflect

3. Instruction

3.1. Schema

3.1.1. mental framework for understanding and processing information - knowing what Ss bring to a subject and how they understand and process it Eg. teach gets her Ss to see the structure of US govt within the info. she is teaching

3.2. CLOZE reading technique

3.2.1. give Ss reading passage with words omitted so Ss fill in the blank allows Ss to construct meaning from context, a comprehension skill

3.3. Least Restrictive Environment

3.3.1. Ss with disabilities are guaranteed the same standard of education as all other children

3.4. Intrinsic motivation

3.4.1. Where Ss feel something, make connections to own lives Eg. Romeo & Juliet: Ss write a journal response about a personal experience similar to the play; discussion about disputes between families and their effects on kids.

3.5. self-efficacy

3.5.1. the belief in one's ability to succeed in a given situation positive reinforcement modeling thought patterns discussing academic performance

3.6. Motivation

3.6.1. Extrinsic

3.6.2. Intrinsic

3.7. Types of Ss

3.7.1. Kinesthetic Math class: group work to design a house, Ss determine geometric portions to objects in classroom, use manipulatives during tests for Ss to use

3.7.2. Reading level higher than Ss levels Ss read along while teacher reads article out loud Ss listen to podcast about same topic Literature: use audio-book version to read along with, provide quiet spact and extra time to complete reading, provide additional after class tutoring. NO Cliff Notes or other study guide versions Independent reading: assign vocabular assignment based on reading, assess student progress, offer extrinsic motivations for reading accomplishments. DO NOT set different expectations for lower level Ss

3.7.3. Ss with low attention span provide additional time to complete assignments offer one-on-one tutoring

3.7.4. Ss with disabilities provide Ss with more time to take a timed test provide Ss with one-on-one setting to take test