UROPATHOLOGY

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UROPATHOLOGY by Mind Map: UROPATHOLOGY

1. Prostate

1.1. Inflammatory

1.1.1. Acute bacterial prostatitis

1.1.2. Chronic bacterial prostatitis

1.1.3. Chronic abacterial prostatitis/prostatodynia

1.2. Tumors

1.2.1. Nodular hyperplasia/Benign prostatic hyperplasia

1.2.1.1. General

1.2.1.1.1. Very common

1.2.1.2. Pathology

1.2.1.2.1. Nodular hyperplasia, stroma&glands

1.2.1.2.2. Transition zone

1.2.2. Carcinoma

1.2.2.1. General

1.2.2.1.1. Very common, age

1.2.2.1.2. DRE/PSA

1.2.2.1.3. Latent vs clinically significant

1.2.2.2. Pathology

1.2.2.2.1. Adenocarcinoma

1.2.2.2.2. Peripheral zone

1.2.2.2.3. Precursors: HGPIN, Adenosis (AAH)

1.2.2.2.4. Spread

1.2.2.2.5. Role of pathologists

1.3. Anatomy & histology

1.3.1. Untitled

1.3.1.1. Zonal anatomy

1.3.1.1.1. Zonal anatomy

2. Testis & paratesticular tissues

2.1. Congenital anomalies

2.1.1. Testicular dysgenesis

2.1.1.1. abnormal development of gonads (hypoplasia,infertility)

2.1.2. Cryptorchidism

2.1.2.1. component of Testicular Dysgenesis Syndrome

2.1.2.1.1. TDS spectrum

2.1.3. Vanishing testes syndrome/testicular regression syndrome/testicular anorchia

2.1.3.1. At least 5% of cryptorchid testes

2.1.4. NON-PALPABLE ABSENT TESTICLE/TESTES

2.1.4.1. atrophy-> fibrous streak->complete lack of testicular structures

2.2. Inflammatory

2.2.1. Epididymo-orchitis

2.2.2. Orchitis

2.3. Vascular

2.3.1. Torsion

2.3.1.1. anomalous testicular suspension defect

2.3.1.1.1. torsion

2.4. Tumors

2.4.1. Germ cell tumors (GCTs) >95%

2.4.1.1. General

2.4.1.1.1. Most common cancer in young males

2.4.1.1.2. Aggresive but curable

2.4.1.1.3. AGE DIFFERENCES

2.4.1.1.4. Biomarkers: AFP, bHCG, LDH

2.4.1.2. Pathology

2.4.1.2.1. Pure (40%)

2.4.1.2.2. Mixed most common (60%)

2.4.1.2.3. Precursor: IGCN

2.4.1.2.4. Spermatocytic seminoma

2.4.2. Neoplasms

2.4.2.1. Sex cord stromal tumors

2.4.2.1.1. Leydig cell tumor (most common SCST)

2.4.2.2. Secondary

2.4.2.2.1. Lymphoma (most common testucular neo in >60 yo)

2.4.3. Celes and cysts of spermatic cord & adnexa

2.4.3.1. Hydrocele

2.4.3.2. Spermatocele

2.4.3.3. Varicocele

2.4.4. Differential diagnosis

2.4.4.1. Epidymoorchitis

2.5. HYPOGONADISM (gonadal failure)

2.5.1. PRIMARY (hypergonadotropic)

2.5.1.1. genetic syndromes

2.5.1.2. cryptorchidism

2.5.1.3. vanishing testes syndrome

2.5.1.4. external insults (eg inflammation, ischaemia)

2.5.1.5. autoimmune

2.5.1.6. Sertoli cell only syndrome

2.5.2. SECONDARY (hypogonadotropic)

2.5.3. presentation depends on the age of development

2.5.4. Inguinal hernia

2.6. Anatomy & histology

2.6.1. testis

2.6.1.1. seminiferous ducts

2.6.1.1.1. seminiferous ducts

3. Penis & Urethra

3.1. Structural/Congenital Abnormalities

3.1.1. Abnormal urethral groove/canal

3.1.1.1. Hypospadias

3.1.1.2. Epispadias

3.1.2. Phimosis

3.1.2.1. Paraphimosis

3.2. Inflammatory

3.2.1. Balanoposthitis

3.2.2. Urethritis

3.3. Neoplasms

3.3.1. Benign

3.3.1.1. Condylomata acuminata

3.3.2. Pre-cancerous

3.3.2.1. Clinical presentations

3.3.2.1.1. Bowen's disease

3.3.2.1.2. Erytroplasia of Queyrat

3.3.2.1.3. Bowenoid papulosis

3.3.2.2. Pathology (common)

3.3.2.2.1. HGSIL/ca in situ

3.3.3. Malignancy

3.3.3.1. Squamous cell carcinoma

3.3.3.2. Verrucous carcinoma

4. SURGICAL CONDITIONS OF THE KIDNEYS, URETERS & URINARY BLADDER

4.1. CONGENITAL & CYSTIC DISEASES

4.1.1. CONGENITAL MALFORMATIONS

4.1.1.1. URINARY BLADDER

4.1.1.1.1. AGENESIS

4.1.1.1.2. EXSTROPHY

4.1.1.2. KIDNEY

4.1.1.2.1. AMOUNT

4.1.1.2.2. POSITION

4.1.1.2.3. DIFFERENTIATION

4.1.2. CYSTIC DISEASES

4.1.2.1. CONGENITAL & HEREDITARY

4.1.2.1.1. CYSTIC DYSPLASIA

4.1.2.1.2. POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES

4.1.2.1.3. cystic diseases involving medulla

4.1.2.2. AQUIRED

4.1.2.2.1. SIMPLE CYSTS

4.1.2.2.2. AQUIRED/DIALYSIS ASSOCIATED CYSTIC DISEASE

4.1.2.3. CYSTIC FORMS OF NEOPLASMS

4.2. OBTURACJA DRÓG MOCZOWYCH

4.3. TUMORS OF THE UT

4.3.1. KIDNEY NEOPLASMS

4.3.1.1. MALIGNANT

4.3.1.1.1. RENAL CELL CARCINOMA (RCC)

4.3.1.1.2. UROTHELIAL CA

4.3.1.1.3. NEO PEDIATRIC

4.3.1.2. BENIGN

4.3.1.2.1. CORTICAL ADENOMA

4.3.1.2.2. ONCOCYTOMA

4.3.1.2.3. ANGIOMYOLIPOMA

4.3.2. URINARY BLADDER TUMORS

4.3.2.1. GENERAL

4.3.2.1.1. PEAK 65 yo, M:F 3:1

4.3.2.1.2. almost all sporadic; MULTIFOCALITY

4.3.2.1.3. RISK FACTORS

4.3.2.2. CLINICS

4.3.2.2.1. painless hematuria

4.3.2.2.2. UT obstruction

4.3.2.3. HISTOPATOLOGY

4.3.2.3.1. UROTHELIAL NEOPLASMS (>90%)

4.3.2.3.2. nowotwory nieurotelialne

4.3.2.4. STAGING

4.3.2.4.1. VARIOUS LEVELS OF INVASION