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Student as Producer by Mind Map: Student as Producer
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Student as Producer


Humboldt: ‘organic scholarship’ - directly involved in the speculative thinking of their tutors, close contact, Socratic/dialectical dialogue.

1. scholarship of discovery – research; 2. the scholarship of integration – interdisciplinary connections; 3. the scholarship of application and engagement – knowledge applied in the wider community; 4. and the scholarship of teaching – research and evaluation of ones own teaching (Boyer 1990).

Benjamin: "gigantic game of hide and seek" between teachers and students

The organisation of the university has ceased to be grounded in the productivity of its students, as its founders had envisaged. They thought of students as teachers and learners at the same time; as teachers because productivity implies complete autonomy, with their minds fixed on science instead of the instructors’ personality. (Benjamin 1915: 42)

Students as subjects rather than objects of history

The point of ZPD is to establish a space where students perform beyond themselves so as to make history, not simply knowledge.

1968: questioned the relationships between the student and the teacher, the relationship between intellectual and manual labour, the relationship between the student movement and other social movements and the relationship between the university and its external environment.

By making connections between the university and its own political history, and by developing a pedagogy that connects teaching and research at the undergraduate level, it is possible that a radical new pedagogy might emerge. It is the possibility of this new radical pedagogy that is described as a pedagogy of excess.


exemplifies a social constructivist view of learning

values of openness and creativity, engenders equity among academics and students

The educator is no longer a delivery vehicle and the institution becomes a landscape for the production and construction of a mass intellect in commons.

students are the subjects of the intellectual process of teaching and learning, and that a progressive pedagogy involves reinventing the politics of production from within, against and beyond the current social relations of capitalist production. The issue for them is not simply how do students learn, but how do radical intellectuals teach?


‘Education should be structured so that it is not the student that is educated, but that the student educates himself’ or, in other words, ‘...the real secret of education lies in not teaching’ (Vygotsky, 1997).

Action Committees: comprised of between ten – fifteen members, academics and students, initially for dialogue and discussion, promoting ‘constant criticism and self discovery’ so that ‘the movement was able to constantly radicalize itself’

connect current pedagogies that link teaching and research with their own radical academic history, and to develop them in a form that is appropriate for the contemporary situation. Key to this issue of connectivity is the relationship between action and progressive political theory. It is the relationship between theory and action, linked to contemporary struggles within higher education, that provides a framework for the emergence of a pedagogy of excess.

Excess: Open Educational Resources. A counter to the economistic and market driven restrictive practices that increasingly dominate the activity of scientific enquiry.

Student as Producer-ZPD does not set the limits within which the student is expected to achieve at that outset of the learning process, but is open ended enough for the student to perform beyond what they thought they were capable of achieving.

designed to interrupt the current consensual discourse about teaching and learning in higher education.

these contestations and struggles might include course content, assessment strategies and student fees, but a fully developed pedagogy of excess would look beyond student issues, to matters of more general social concern, ‘common affairs’, in which the interests of students are not the main issue.


Ecological sustainability

institutional change as the outcome of conflict and struggle, forming part of a much wider social, political and economic context beyond the institution.

Fragmented disciplines promote a fragmented world



Informed by social history of technology

Higher education is directly involved in the development of technology, science and the production of knowledge. The student-academic is the both the producer and personification of this form of knowledge, and, therefore, has a key role to play in re-engineering of the politics of production.

Internet is quintessential expression and institution of general social knowledge/mass intellect


critique not simply the politics of consumption but the politics of production.

Direct action should be informed in this curriculum by the lessons learned from the history of struggle inside and outside of the academy.

the engagement of students in the design of curricula, including deciding on the content of courses as well as forms of assessment; and, through the proliferation of independent study programmes, a recognition that undergraduate students were capable of creating knowledge of real academic content and value