Stress Management

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Stress Management by Mind Map: Stress Management

1. Review

1.1. Can be reluctant "The prevailing notion among many company presidents is that stress is a problem for individual employees, not a problem for the firm"

1.2. Stress management started out as a way for companies to prevent lost profits.

1.2.1. "Consequently, actions tend to be driven by a desire to reduce or arrest costs"

1.3. Focus on Interface, Callender calls it, working team PRIMARY

1.3.1. environment

1.3.1.1. Fast environment

1.3.1.1.1. Stueart

1.3.1.1.2. Bryson

1.3.2. Nawe's approach (2007) based on Bunge's

1.3.2.1. Stress management is induced by work

1.3.2.2. Stress management starts at home with simple steps

1.3.2.3. "Positive attitudes accompanied by support from peers and management are very effective"

1.3.2.3.1. Remove the cause?

1.3.3. Rojas and Kleiner

1.3.3.1. Take one task at a time

1.3.3.2. Organise yourself

1.3.3.3. Avoid disruption

1.3.3.4. Communicate

1.3.3.4.1. Make management aware of workload

1.3.3.5. Train

1.4. For successful; stress management, the individual need to change attitude towards problem+reaction to this problem. The above framework deal with the surface and no sign of long term implementation

1.5. Focus on Individual, supported by Callender SECONDARY

1.5.1. Stress factors

1.5.1.1. Type A vs Type B

1.5.1.1.1. Bryson

1.5.1.1.2. Mullins

1.5.1.2. General

1.5.1.2.1. overload/underload

1.5.1.2.2. lack of challenge

1.5.1.2.3. Influenced by outside factors

1.5.1.2.4. Unclear career structures

1.5.1.3. Libraries

1.5.1.3.1. "being a librarian causes more stress than fighting a fire, driving at a fast speed or teaching a class of poorly mannered children."

1.5.1.3.2. "role conflict and ambiguity; work overload; time pressure; inadequate authority to match responsibilities; poor quality of supervision; lack of communication; failure to show appreciation for a job well done; differences in values between an employer and an employee; change of any type, especially when it is major or unusual; frustration; minor irritations; insecure environment etc"

1.5.1.3.3. poor stress training because it doesn't appear necessary in libraries

1.5.1.3.4. contact with the public

1.5.1.3.5. tensions between professionals and para professionals

1.5.1.3.6. Technostress

1.5.1.3.7. List by Jordan

1.5.1.4. "When was the last time that you heard of a class in StressManagement being taught as part of the curriculum {in librarian training}? Even afterwards, in the actual workplace environment, concentration is placed on “patron satisfaction and service” over the concerns of the library employee."

1.5.2. Techniques (Rojas and Kleiner)

1.5.2.1. Breathing

1.5.2.2. Meditation

1.5.2.3. Exercising

1.5.2.4. Massaging

1.5.2.5. HUMOUR RESARCH EMERALD ARTICLE

1.5.3. Arroba's organisational model

1.5.3.1. Getting the organisation to recognise stress

1.5.3.2. Training individuals in stress management

1.5.3.2.1. In house, is it viable?

1.5.3.3. Providing helping skills

1.5.3.4. Stress Audit

1.5.3.4.1. Should be performed first to be efficient, shows the company doesn't really care

1.5.3.5. Focusing on the individual because he is impacting on the company. Evaluation is not an essential part of the process.

1.5.3.5.1. How do you evaluate stress?

1.5.3.6. Doesn't remove cause

1.6. Why don't stress management methods work?

1.6.1. "lack of co-operation from top management"

1.6.2. General feeling that "stress is a problem for individual employees, not a problem for the organization"

1.7. Transactional approach, can't blame one or the other. Have to work together

1.8. Focus on Organisation, Callender calls it the organisation culture TERTIARY

1.8.1. TSM, based on TQM (Total Quality Management

1.8.1.1. based on "cultural and attitudinal changes within the organization"

1.8.1.1.1. Step 1: Stress audit, usually kick-started by management

1.8.1.1.2. Step 2: Promote stress management and train staff

1.8.1.1.3. Step 3: Provision of adequate backup support

1.8.1.1.4. Step 4: Monitor stress levels, the cost and implementation of TSM

1.8.1.1.5. long term AND benefits the company

1.8.1.2. "It is imperative at this stage that a system-wide approach be adopted so that the efforts and attitudes of everyone are focused on stress prevention and management within the organization, themselves, and other people."

1.9. Focus on all the aspects

1.9.1. Intervention Strategy

1.9.1.1. Primary

1.9.1.1.1. Reduce stress

1.9.1.2. Secondary

1.9.1.2.1. Stress Management

1.9.1.3. Tertiary

1.9.1.3.1. Councelling within the workplace

1.9.1.4. Need to be enforced by policies

1.9.1.4.1. Risk assessment

1.9.1.4.2. Reward Stress Management by companies

1.9.2. Bunge'strategy (1989)

1.9.2.1. Gives a set of strategies to be implemented in no particular order

1.9.2.1.1. "reducing the number and intensity of stressors" or Focus on the workplace

1.9.2.1.2. "strengthening the employees’ ability to cope with stress effectively" or Focus on employee and Environment

1.9.2.1.3. "recognizing and assisting those who are not coping effectively and who are at risk of burnout" or Focus on the employee

2. General

2.1. 2 types of stress

2.1.1. Eustress

2.1.1.1. Positive stress

2.1.1.1.1. Necessary to achieve goals

2.1.2. Distress

2.1.2.1. Negative stress

2.1.2.1.1. Affects human being mentally and physically

2.1.3. In this essay,distress will be referred to as stress

2.2. Who is affected by stress?

2.2.1. Individual

2.2.1.1. How does it show?

2.2.1.1.1. Physiology

2.2.1.1.2. Behaviour

2.2.1.1.3. Psychology

2.2.1.1.4. Environment

2.2.1.2. New node

2.2.1.3. Copes with stress for a while and then decreases

2.2.2. Company

2.2.2.1. How does it show?

2.2.2.1.1. Increase heatlh insurance costs

2.2.2.1.2. Sick leave costs

2.2.2.1.3. Impaired productivity

2.2.2.2. When will they act?

2.2.2.2.1. When it impacts on the company

2.2.2.3. Why will they act?

2.2.2.3.1. If it's costing them

2.2.2.3.2. Intended image

2.2.2.3.3. long term benefit

2.3. Literature from the 1980s onwards but stress has developed with new technologies and changes in society

2.4. Scope: work related stress, does not include violence and crime

2.5. Yerkes-Dodson Law

2.5.1. see figure

3. References

3.1. Worksite Stress Management Interventions, DeFrank OK

3.2. Redusing the cost of stress, Arroba

3.3. Introducing Stress and Stress Management to Managers, Hart OK

3.4. Stress Management Training, Has the bubble burst?, Callender OK

3.5. Managing the Stress of Change in the Public Sector, Marie McHugh

3.6. Organization Development and Total Stress Management Marie McHugh and Shirley Brennan

3.7. EAP and Stress management, From Theory to Practice to Comprehensiveness, Dewe OK

3.8. Technostress in the workplace, Brillhart

3.9. Managing Technostress in UK Libraries: A Realistic Guide Stephen Harper

3.10. WHAT’S NEW IN LIBRARIES Stress in the library workplace Elisa F. Topper OK

3.11. Work-related stress among the library and information workforce Julita Nawe

3.12. Stress in the Library Workplace CHARLES A. BUNGE

3.13. AN INTERVENTION STRATEGY FOR WORKPLACE STRESS CARY L. COOPER

3.14. Stueart, D. & Moran, B. (2007). Library and Information Center Management. Westport: Library Unlimited.

3.15. Management and organisational behaviour By Laurie J. Mullins OK

3.16. Bryson, Effective Library and Information centre Management

3.17. The Art and Science of Effective Stress Management, Rojas and Kleiner