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Stress Management by Mind Map: Stress Management
5.0 stars - 1 reviews range from 0 to 5

Stress Management


Can be reluctant "The prevailing notion among many company presidents is that stress is a problem for individual employees, not a problem for the firm"

Stress management started out as a way for companies to prevent lost profits.

"Consequently, actions tend to be driven by a desire to reduce or arrest costs"

Focus on Interface, Callender calls it, working team PRIMARY

environment, Fast environment, Stueart, Bryson

Nawe's approach (2007) based on Bunge's, Stress management is induced by work, Stress management starts at home with simple steps, "Positive attitudes accompanied by support from peers and management are very effective", Remove the cause?

Rojas and Kleiner, Take one task at a time, Organise yourself, Avoid disruption, Communicate, Make management aware of workload, Train

For successful; stress management, the individual need to change attitude towards problem+reaction to this problem. The above framework deal with the surface and no sign of long term implementation

Focus on Individual, supported by Callender SECONDARY

Stress factors, Type A vs Type B, Bryson, Mullins, General, overload/underload, lack of challenge, Influenced by outside factors, Stueart, Unclear career structures, Libraries, "being a librarian causes more stress than fighting a fire, driving at a fast speed or teaching a class of poorly mannered children.", "role conflict and ambiguity; work overload; time pressure; inadequate authority to match responsibilities; poor quality of supervision; lack of communication; failure to show appreciation for a job well done; differences in values between an employer and an employee; change of any type, especially when it is major or unusual; frustration; minor irritations; insecure environment etc", poor stress training because it doesn't appear necessary in libraries, contact with the public, Failure to meet patron's needs, tensions between professionals and para professionals, Technostress, Traning in new technologies is a responsibility for individual and the library, List by Jordan, "When was the last time that you heard of a class in StressManagement being taught as part of the curriculum {in librarian training}? Even afterwards, in the actual workplace environment, concentration is placed on “patron satisfaction and service” over the concerns of the library employee."

Techniques (Rojas and Kleiner), Breathing, Meditation, Exercising, Massaging, HUMOUR RESARCH EMERALD ARTICLE

Arroba's organisational model, Getting the organisation to recognise stress, Training individuals in stress management, In house, is it viable?, Providing helping skills, Stress Audit, Should be performed first to be efficient, shows the company doesn't really care, Focusing on the individual because he is impacting on the company. Evaluation is not an essential part of the process., How do you evaluate stress?, In terms of absenteeism, Different waysto tackle stress at work, team building, doesn't feel like stress management, Doesn't remove cause

Why don't stress management methods work?

"lack of co-operation from top management"

General feeling that "stress is a problem for individual employees, not a problem for the organization"

Transactional approach, can't blame one or the other. Have to work together

Focus on Organisation, Callender calls it the organisation culture TERTIARY

TSM, based on TQM (Total Quality Management, based on "cultural and attitudinal changes within the organization", Step 1: Stress audit, usually kick-started by management, Step 2: Promote stress management and train staff, Step 3: Provision of adequate backup support, Step 4: Monitor stress levels, the cost and implementation of TSM, long term AND benefits the company, "It is imperative at this stage that a system-wide approach be adopted so that the efforts and attitudes of everyone are focused on stress prevention and management within the organization, themselves, and other people."

Focus on all the aspects

Intervention Strategy, Primary, Reduce stress, Secondary, Stress Management, In house, employee assistance program (EAP), Tertiary, Councelling within the workplace, Need to be enforced by policies, Risk assessment, One expert should be especially trained as well as managers, Reward Stress Management by companies, "tax incentives for validated health and safety expenditure incurred by organizations", Reduce Insurance Premium

Bunge'strategy (1989), Gives a set of strategies to be implemented in no particular order, "reducing the number and intensity of stressors" or Focus on the workplace, Job redesign, make time for breaks, Training opportunities, Collaborate rather than compete, Design of the workplace, PRIMARY, "strengthening the employees’ ability to cope with stress effectively" or Focus on employee and Environment, Workshops on how to recognise stress, "effective social support system", SECONDARY, "recognizing and assisting those who are not coping effectively and who are at risk of burnout" or Focus on the employee, Especially people about to retire or women (sic!), "personnel officers should be knowledgeable concerning signs and symptoms of excessive stress and ineffective coping.", Provide guidance and comfort instead of confronting the employee straight on, TERTIARY


2 types of stress

Eustress, Positive stress, Necessary to achieve goals

Distress, Negative stress, Affects human being mentally and physically, Eventually results in burnout

In this essay,distress will be referred to as stress

Who is affected by stress?

Individual, How does it show?, Physiology, Behaviour, Psychology, Environment, New node, Copes with stress for a while and then decreases

Company, How does it show?, Increase heatlh insurance costs, Sick leave costs, Impaired productivity, When will they act?, When it impacts on the company, Why will they act?, If it's costing them, Intended image, long term benefit

Literature from the 1980s onwards but stress has developed with new technologies and changes in society

Scope: work related stress, does not include violence and crime

Yerkes-Dodson Law

see figure


Worksite Stress Management Interventions, DeFrank OK

Redusing the cost of stress, Arroba

Introducing Stress and Stress Management to Managers, Hart OK

Stress Management Training, Has the bubble burst?, Callender OK

Managing the Stress of Change in the Public Sector, Marie McHugh

Organization Development and Total Stress Management Marie McHugh and Shirley Brennan

EAP and Stress management, From Theory to Practice to Comprehensiveness, Dewe OK

Technostress in the workplace, Brillhart

Managing Technostress in UK Libraries: A Realistic Guide Stephen Harper

WHAT’S NEW IN LIBRARIES Stress in the library workplace Elisa F. Topper OK

Work-related stress among the library and information workforce Julita Nawe

Stress in the Library Workplace CHARLES A. BUNGE


Stueart, D. & Moran, B. (2007). Library and Information Center Management. Westport: Library Unlimited.

Management and organisational behaviour By Laurie J. Mullins OK

Bryson, Effective Library and Information centre Management

The Art and Science of Effective Stress Management, Rojas and Kleiner