Culture A, Participants, Tasks, Materials
Culture B, Participants, Tasks, Materials
Meaningful comparison, compare kind with kind, role, importance, prevalence..., sensitivity of measurement and analysis, requires understanding of both cultures, researchers from both cultures?
not specifically for cross-cultural research
strengthen validity by studying phenomenon from multiple viewpoints, behavioural, computational, neural, ...
usually combining modelling and experimenting, formalisation of a system, investigating the cross-cultural variables
view from within
internal logic of a culture
neutral / outside view, derived / imposed ETIC...
rhythm, beat vs. tactus, "African rhythm", Pressing: cyclic structures, Agawu: "African rhythm" is an invention, metre in Alap, Martin Clayton, alap is the "unmeasured" section of a raga in Indian music, it does have it's metric structure and process, just not a clear beat, Computer-assisted analysis, influence of language, Stobart & Cross: Northern Potosi, Bolivia, nPVI, Patel & Daniele etc., language syllable timing & music rhythm patterns
structure, Western notation structures structure, non-western musics: real difference or a difference of representation?
complexity, often used as an indicator of cultural tuning of perceptual processes, melodic, rhythmic, structural..., features familiar in own music seem less complex
emotion, many studies on cross-cultural aspects of emotion perception, is music an universal language of emotions?
rhythm, polyrhythms, dance, group synchronisation, Projects in JY Music Dept.
potential universals, elementary auditory grouping, stable reference pitch, division of octave into scale steps, use of reference pulse, induction of rhythmic patterns by asymmetric subdivision
infant musicality, early communication is "musical"
infants have sensitivity to all variants
with age (1 year) focus on those important in own culture, acculturation
What determines "behavioural outcomes"?, Genetic makeup & biology - nature, Absolutist, Similarities: Species-wide basic processes, Differences: non-cultural factors, Upbringing and environment - nurture, Relativist, Similarities: usually not studied, Differences: cultural influences, Both, Universalist, Similarities: species-wide basic processes, Differences: culture-organism interactions, Matt Ridley, But: not everything is both, Chinese vs. English language, language faculty is shared, content culturally determined, autism: not due to cultural or nurture-related factors
music theory, scale, harmony, meter, melody / accompaniment, consonance / dissonance
cognitive systems, instruments, language & concepts
Social dynamics / meanings of music
There is no perfect experiment, full stop.
What constitutes cross-cultural study?, Cultural group, methodology applied for ethnic groups in same country, different countries?, Could musician - non-musician be a cross-cultural study?
Music is easier, as rarely the whole concept is under study, rather a fragment of perception
Culture, shared way of life for a group of people, arte, cultural experiences, cultural change
cross-what?, geography, language, nation, other?, cross-national psychology, within nation, between ethnic / cultural groups
naturalistic disciplines, ecology, anthropology, sociology, linguistics, biology
psychology: often experimental, developmental, social behaviour, personality, cognition, perception
how to collaborate between fields of science?, Need to avoid reductionism
Convergence of naturalistic and experimental viewpoints
variance & effects: differences within culture vs. similarities between cultures, musicians vs. non-musicians?
"transport and test"
"explore and discover"
"generate a more universal psychology"