Cross-cultural experimentation

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Cross-cultural experimentation by Mind Map: Cross-cultural experimentation

1. Methods

1.1. Balanced designs

1.1.1. Culture A

1.1.1.1. Participants

1.1.1.1.1. Tasks

1.1.2. Culture B

1.1.2.1. Participants

1.1.2.1.1. Tasks

1.1.3. Meaningful comparison

1.1.3.1. compare kind with kind

1.1.3.2. role, importance, prevalence...

1.1.3.3. sensitivity of measurement and analysis

1.1.3.4. requires understanding of both cultures

1.1.3.4.1. researchers from both cultures?

1.2. Convergent methodology

1.2.1. not specifically for cross-cultural research

1.2.2. strengthen validity by studying phenomenon from multiple viewpoints

1.2.2.1. behavioural

1.2.2.2. computational

1.2.2.3. neural

1.2.2.4. ...

1.2.3. usually combining modelling and experimenting

1.2.3.1. formalisation of a system

1.2.3.2. investigating the cross-cultural variables

1.3. EMIC

1.3.1. view from within

1.3.2. thorough understanding

1.3.3. internal logic of a culture

1.4. ETIC

1.4.1. neutral / outside view

1.4.1.1. derived / imposed ETIC...

1.4.2. general principles

1.4.3. universal aspects

2. Topics in music

2.1. Perception

2.1.1. rhythm

2.1.1.1. beat vs. tactus

2.1.1.2. "African rhythm"

2.1.1.2.1. Pressing: cyclic structures

2.1.1.2.2. Agawu: "African rhythm" is an invention

2.1.1.3. metre in Alap

2.1.1.3.1. Martin Clayton

2.1.1.3.2. alap is the "unmeasured" section of a raga in Indian music

2.1.1.3.3. it does have it's metric structure and process, just not a clear beat

2.1.1.4. influence of language

2.1.1.4.1. Stobart & Cross: Northern Potosi, Bolivia

2.1.1.4.2. nPVI

2.1.2. structure

2.1.2.1. Western notation structures structure

2.1.2.2. non-western musics: real difference or a difference of representation?

2.1.3. complexity

2.1.3.1. often used as an indicator of cultural tuning of perceptual processes

2.1.3.2. melodic, rhythmic, structural...

2.1.3.3. features familiar in own music seem less complex

2.1.4. emotion

2.1.4.1. many studies on cross-cultural aspects of emotion perception

2.1.4.2. is music an universal language of emotions?

2.2. Production

2.2.1. rhythm

2.2.1.1. polyrhythms

2.2.1.2. dance

2.2.1.2.1. group synchronisation

2.3. Universality

2.3.1. potential universals

2.3.1.1. elementary auditory grouping

2.3.1.2. stable reference pitch

2.3.1.3. division of octave into scale steps

2.3.1.4. use of reference pulse

2.3.1.5. induction of rhythmic patterns by asymmetric subdivision

2.4. Development

2.4.1. infant musicality

2.4.1.1. early communication is "musical"

2.4.2. infants have sensitivity to all variants

2.4.3. with age (1 year) focus on those important in own culture

2.4.3.1. acculturation

3. Questions

3.1. Nature or nurture?

3.1.1. What determines "behavioural outcomes"?

3.1.1.1. Genetic makeup & biology - nature

3.1.1.1.1. Absolutist

3.1.1.2. Upbringing and environment - nurture

3.1.1.2.1. Relativist

3.1.1.3. Both

3.1.1.3.1. Universalist

3.1.1.3.2. Matt Ridley

3.1.1.3.3. But: not everything is both

3.2. so what if there's a difference?

3.3. so what if there's a similarity?

4. Processes

4.1. Biological adaptation

4.1.1. Genetic transmission

4.1.2. Ecological influences

4.2. Cultural adaptation

4.2.1. Cultural transmission

4.2.2. Acculturation

5. Contexts

5.1. Ecological context

5.2. Socio-political context

6. Issues / problems

6.1. Differences in theoretical concepts

6.1.1. music theory

6.1.1.1. scale

6.1.1.2. harmony

6.1.1.3. meter

6.1.1.4. melody / accompaniment

6.1.1.5. consonance / dissonance

6.1.2. epistemology

6.1.3. cognitive systems

6.1.3.1. instruments

6.1.3.2. language & concepts

6.2. Number of variables that are different

6.2.1. Language

6.2.2. Socio-economic status

6.2.3. Education

6.2.4. Musical practices

6.2.5. Social dynamics / meanings of music

6.2.6. Untitled

6.3. Too many approaches, too few arrivals

6.3.1. There is no perfect experiment, full stop.

6.4. Definition of music, definition of culture

6.4.1. What constitutes cross-cultural study?

6.4.1.1. Cultural group

6.4.1.1.1. methodology applied for ethnic groups in same country

6.4.1.1.2. different countries?

6.4.1.1.3. Could musician - non-musician be a cross-cultural study?

6.4.2. Music is easier, as rarely the whole concept is under study, rather a fragment of perception

7. Cross-cultural psychology

7.1. Definitions

7.1.1. Culture

7.1.1.1. shared way of life for a group of people

7.1.1.2. arte

7.1.1.3. cultural experiences

7.1.1.4. cultural change

7.1.2. Cross-cultural psychology

7.1.3. cross-what?

7.1.3.1. geography, language, nation, other?

7.1.3.2. cross-national psychology

7.1.3.3. within nation, between ethnic / cultural groups

7.2. Related disciplines

7.2.1. naturalistic disciplines

7.2.1.1. ecology

7.2.1.2. anthropology

7.2.1.3. sociology

7.2.1.4. linguistics

7.2.1.5. biology

7.2.2. psychology: often experimental

7.2.2.1. developmental

7.2.2.2. social behaviour

7.2.2.3. personality

7.2.2.4. cognition

7.2.2.5. perception

7.3. Issues

7.3.1. how to collaborate between fields of science?

7.3.1.1. Need to avoid reductionism

7.3.2. Convergence of naturalistic and experimental viewpoints

7.3.3. variance & effects: differences within culture vs. similarities between cultures

7.3.3.1. musicians vs. non-musicians?

7.4. Aims

7.4.1. "transport and test"

7.4.2. "explore and discover"

7.4.3. "generate a more universal psychology"

7.5. Framework

7.5.1. <html><img src="cc_framework.png">

8. Reading material

8.1. Carterette, E.C. and Kendall, R.A. (1999). Comparative music perception and cognition. In D. Deutsch (ed.). The Psychology of Music. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. 725-791.

8.2. Stevens, K. (2004). Cross-cultural studies of musical pitch and time. Acoust. Sci. & Tech. 25(6) (doi: 10.1250/ast.25.433)

8.3. Balkwill, L.L. and Thompson, W.F. (1999). A cross-cultural investigation of the perception of emotion in music: Psychophysical and cultural cues. Music Perception, 17(1), 43-64.

8.4. Berry, J.W. and Poortinga, Y.H. and Pandey, J. (1997). Handbook of Cross-cultural Psychology: Theory and method. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

8.5. Ridley, M. (2003). Nature via nurture: Genes, experience, and what makes us human. London, UK: Harper & Collins.

8.6. Krumhansl, C.L., Toivanen, P., Eerola, T., Toiviainen, P., Järvinen, T. & Louhivuori, J. (2000). Cross-cultural music cognition: Cognitive methodology applied to North Sami yoiks. Cognition, 76(1), 13-58.

8.7. Fritz, T., Jentschke, S., Gosselin, N., Sammler, D., Peretz, I., Turner, R., Friederici, A.D. and Koelsch, S. (2009). Universal recognition of three basic emotions in music. Current Biology, 19(7), 573-576.