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The Nature of Science and Scientific Inquiry by Mind Map: The Nature of Science and
Scientific Inquiry
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The Nature of Science and Scientific Inquiry

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Effective communication


learn by doing science

debunked by Riley, 1979: Spears & Zolman, 1977

historical (narrative)

understand the history understand the nature

Proved ineffective by Abd-El-Khalick and Lederman (2000)

explicit, reflective

plan to teach NOS and SI

Be explicit about NOS and SI in the summary

What is scientific inquiry



Critical thinking

scientific reasoning

Scientific knowledge

Not scientific method

different forms




Starts with a question

data is gathered, data is interpreted to produce evidence

What is the nature of science

Knowledge is tentative Change can occur because

New Evidence

Reinterpretation of old evidence

New theories change the view of the scientist

Knowledge is subjective influenced by the researcher

Theoretical commitments


Previous knowledge




Socially and culturally embedded and may be influenced by

Social values

power structures


socioeconomic factors



Empirically based

uses observations of the real world


imagination creativity, invention, New Theories, New models

Observation and inference

Observation, descriptive statements, accessible to the senses, viable for easy concensus

Inference, require other knowledge, Not accessible to the senses, Interpretations

Laws and Theories

Laws, statements, based on observations, define relationships

Theories, explanations, based on inferences

Activities to aid understanding

Arouse curiosity

prompt for more questions

need to be directive initially


Engage student interest

Must address student issues

limited background knowledge

lack of interest

unable to ask sound questions