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Reason by Mind Map: Reason

1. Intuition

1.1. Intuition is the knowledge that comes from within a person. It is the feeling that people just know what will happen. Many believe that humans are born with instinctive or innate knowledge

1.1.1. Intuition works with reason in terms of system 1. More specifically, in system 1, a first reaction is made to a scenario without any analytical judgement. Consequently, much of this first reaction is based on a person's instinct and subconscious gut feeling. Furthermore, because intuition is defined by knowledge that comes from the aforementioned instinct and gut feelings that come from within, it is evident that intuition works with reason through system 1.

1.1.2. Intuition also somewhat contradicts reasoning because it does not involve the deeper logical analysis that comes from the system 2. Intuition is only the system 1 instant "gut feeling", but does not include the system 2 critical thinking that is a necessary part of reason that can be used to gain more accurate knowledge.

2. Imagination

2.1. Imagination is the ability to dream. It is the ability to enter the fantasy of a story, to change and improve it. Humans are able to picture themselves in scenes, and events that are not received through memory or sense perception.

2.1.1. Imagination and reason are connected in that imagination affects people's system 1 first reaction. More specifically, if someone were to come across a bag filled with money, their most likely first reaction would be to take it. This first thought can stem from imagination in that when the person sees the money and the consequent opportunity to take it, they may start to imagine the monetary items that could be bought, tempting them to take the bag in their first reaction. In that sense, it is clear that imagination can be connected to reason by the system 1 process in our brain.

2.1.2. Imagination, if accepted as truth, can directly contradict the knowledge gained through reason. If a person chooses to accept an imagined situation or reality as accurate knowledge, this will likely conflict with the knowledge that would be gained through inductive or deductive reasoning. Reasoning uses facts, evidence, and accepted truths to gain knowledge through logical analysis. Imagination is not necessarily based on facts or any form of sound logic, and can therefore contradict reasoning.

3. Memory

3.1. Memory is the knowledge people have gained from the past. Through memories people are able to carry their skills, past experiences, and shared knowledge through time.

3.1.1. Memory is connected to reason in that memory affects the system 1 first reaction. For instance, if a kid, on the first day of school, is given a wedgie by a bully, the next time they see the bully, their first reaction will be based on memory. More specifically, because of this traumatic first experience with the bully, the kid will automatically remember the bully as a mean kid and someone you want to avoid. Therefore, in the next instance in which the kid sees the bully, this memory of the first experience will sub-cautiously kick in, making the kid's first reaction to the sight of the bully be to get out of sight in order to not be bullied again. In that sense, memory is connected to reason by means of system 1.

3.1.2. Memory has certain inherent biases that make it less reliable. One person's memory of an event can also be inaccurate or incomplete. If these memories are used to create premises that are assumed to be true, but are in fact false, this can lead to invalid conclusions being drawn through reasoning. In this way, memory, and its limitations, can work against reasoning.

4. Emotion

4.1. Emotions significantly affect our lives. Examples of emotions are: sad, happy, angry, disgust, anticipation, and surprise. It is very difficult to describe what emotions are and why they affect us.

4.1.1. Emotions can be connected to reason in that they affect our system 1 first reactions. For instance, if someone was having a bad day because their girlfriend broke up with them and all the sudden, the person received a text from a friend asking if he wanted to see a movie about a relationship, their first thought would be based on this emotion. More specifically, because the person is feeling sad and angry about the relationship, he will most likely, on the first thought, not want to see a movie about a relationship because a relationship in it of itself is making him sad. Thus, in that sense, it is clear that emotion is connected to reason by its impact on the system 1 first reaction

4.1.2. Emotions can often contradict sound logical reasoning. In situations where a person is flooded with emotions, it can stop them from using the system 2 part of their brain, leading them to make quickchoices, instead of well reasoned decisions.

5. Faith

5.1. Faith is somewhat ambiguous, and has different meanings and significance to different people. There are four main concepts that can define Faith: 1. Trust, "placing faith" or believe in a person, group, or supernatural being 2. Keeping promises/loyalty 3. accepting assumptions or appearances without further questioning 4. belief that either rejects the need for justification, or is based on other justifications, that may convince some people, but not others.

5.1.1. The way in which faith and reason are connected lies in the fact that the faith of a person can affects both the system 1 first reaction and the system 2 analytical judgement (however, as seen below, this ends up contradicting the reasoned judgement). For instance, in terms of faith as religion, when someone of the Catholic faith sees another person following a Satanic temple, their first thought might be that the person is condemned to hell. This is because when people become so consumed with religion, it becomes a part of who they are and in turn, becomes second nature for them to judge situations based on their beliefs, which in this case consists of the Catholic person believing that anyone who follows Satan will go to hell. Thus, it is clear that faith can impact someone's first reaction of system 1, connecting it to reason.

5.1.2. If faith is taken in the context of accepting assumptions without further questioning or justification, then reasoning and faith directly contradict each other. Reasoning involves using the deeper analytical system 2 critical thinking. Reasoning utilizes logic to draw specific conclusions or reveal general statements. In this context of faith, instead of using reason to gain deeper knowledge, the assumptions is simply taken as fact, instead of being analyzed further.