by Roderick Pearce
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Hypodermic Syringe Model -
'The Magic Bullet Theory'
Packard is the theorist
associated with this
model. He first related
this to advertisment but
can be used in a wider
It suggests the media send discreet and direct
messages to the audiance; especially the
vulnerable like children and the mentally disabled.
In a sense owners do have a direct effect over
Marxists supports this model as they believe the
media do send simple but powerful messages to the
audience. They do this to help entrench their position
Cultural Effects Model
This model suggests that
while people are affected
by media messages,
much depends on the
individuals in the
People interpret media messages based on
their background: class, age, gender and
ethnicity., Stack et al found that suicides within the the
heavy metal music fans community came
from more working class backgrounds.
Neo-Marxists believe that the media have a
complex role in maintaing and influencing the
audience. Also to get the audience consent it
depends on their background which links to
The Two Step Flow Model
Katz and Lazarsfeld identified
this model and it is part of
the indirect theories
There exists an opinion leader -
who could be a variety of different
people including Rupert Murdoch
- as they are exposed to the
media over a particular topic.
This leads to the opinion leader
being regarded as an expert on
the topic by social contacts by
passing the media messages on.
Neo-Marxists like this model. Opinion leaders are
often media professionals like journalists and
editors which their theory has a greater emphasis
Selective Filter Model
Klapper is the primary
sociologists who is related
to the media.
He says that the media messages must go
through a number of filters before they
influence the audience., Selective exposure - They choose
media based on individual
backgrounds., Selective perception - Audience
can see messages in different
ways., Selective retention - Audience will
only see certain messages but not
Pluralists support this as it agrees with the
view that the audience are more powerful
than the messages to a large extent.
Uses and Gratification Model
Blumler and McQuail relate to
They believe the public use the media for their
own needs. They use it to form relationships, to
escape, gather information and construct identity.
Pluralists and interpretists believe
that the audience are more powerful
than the media messages - Fiske -
thus they support his model.