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Media models by Mind Map: Media models
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Media models

Hypodermic Syringe Model - 'The Magic Bullet Theory'

Packard is the theorist associated with this model. He first related this to advertisment but can be used in a wider context.

It suggests the media send discreet and direct messages to the audiance; especially the vulnerable like children and the mentally disabled. In a sense owners do have a direct effect over you.

Marxists supports this model as they believe the media do send simple but powerful messages to the audience. They do this to help entrench their position in society.

Cultural Effects Model

This model suggests that while people are affected by media messages, much depends on the individuals in the audience.

People interpret media messages based on their background: class, age, gender and ethnicity., Stack et al found that suicides within the the heavy metal music fans community came from more working class backgrounds.

Neo-Marxists believe that the media have a complex role in maintaing and influencing the audience. Also to get the audience consent it depends on their background which links to this model.

The Two Step Flow Model

Katz and Lazarsfeld identified this model and it is part of the indirect theories

There exists an opinion leader - who could be a variety of different people including Rupert Murdoch - as they are exposed to the media over a particular topic. This leads to the opinion leader being regarded as an expert on the topic by social contacts by passing the media messages on.

Neo-Marxists like this model. Opinion leaders are often media professionals like journalists and editors which their theory has a greater emphasis on.

Selective Filter Model

Klapper is the primary sociologists who is related to the media.

He says that the media messages must go through a number of filters before they influence the audience., Selective exposure - They choose media based on individual backgrounds., Selective perception - Audience can see messages in different ways., Selective retention - Audience will only see certain messages but not all.

Pluralists support this as it agrees with the view that the audience are more powerful than the messages to a large extent.

Uses and Gratification Model

Blumler and McQuail relate to this theory.

They believe the public use the media for their own needs. They use it to form relationships, to escape, gather information and construct identity.

Pluralists and interpretists believe that the audience are more powerful than the media messages - Fiske - thus they support his model.