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Ch6/7 brain pumped by Mind Map: Ch6/7
brain pumped
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Ch6/7 brain pumped

solutions

concentration

ppm

ppb

molarity

Equivalents, charge

percent, by weight, by volume

mass/mass

mass/volume

volume/volume

dilution

ci x vi = cf x vf, initial concentration x intial volume = final concentration x final volume

serial dilutions

solubility

like dissolves like, polar solvent dissolves polar solute, nonpolar solvent dissolves nonpolar solute

similarity of IMF determines solubility

solvation

molecules of solvent surrounding solute

hydration

molecules of water surrounding solute atoms, ions or molecules

partially positive part of water molecule attracted to partially negative or negative part of solute ion or molecule

partially negative part of water molecule attracted to partially positive or positive part of solute ion or molecule

phase

solid in liquid

liquid in liquid

gas in liquid

solid in solid

liquid in liquid

gas in gas

phase change occurs when disruptive forces are greater than attractive forces

lipids

nonpolar

fatty acids + glycerol = glycerides

monoglycerides, glycerol backbone and 1 fatty acid

diglycerides, glycerol backbone and 2 fatty acids

triglycerides, glycerol backbone and 3 fatty acids

glycerophospholipids, glycerol + fatty acids + phosphate + ....

dissolve only in nonpolar solvents

hydrophobic

lipids and water don't mix because water is polar and lipids are nonpolar

need to know lipids

cell membrane

transport

diffusion

facilitated diffusion

active transport

passive transport

proteins

phospholipid bilayer

channels

carbohydrates

diffusion

greater concentration to lower concentration

higher partial pressure to lower partial pressue

osmosis

naked egg experiment

semipermeable membrane

crenate, crenation, deflate or shrink due to loss of water

lyse, lysis, swells or bursts due to too much water

hypotonic

less concentrated in comparison

cell in hypotonic solution will lyse or burst

water will flow from hypotonic solution (more water) into cell (less water)

hypertonic

more concentrated in comparison

cell in hypertonic solution will crenate or deflate

water will flow out of cell (more water) to the solution (less water)

isotonic

same concentration

no change in cell in an isotonic solution

need to keep our bodily fluids isotonic with blood to avoid damage by lysis or crenation

isotonic fluid replacement solutions, Dextrose 5%, saline 0.90%, Untitled

intermolecular forces

London forces

only IMF for nonpolar molecules

weakest IMF, but if a lot of London forces act together, can be very strong

also called dispersion forces

also called induced dipole, temporary dipole induced by an ion or other force, temporary charge on one molecule induces dipole in its neighbor

temporary dipoles, due to shifting electron configuration, happens as molecules move around

active when plastic sticks together, for example

dipole-dipole

permament dipoles on polar molecules

stronger IMF

partial positive and partial negative charges

polar molecules like water, etc.

strength of dipole varies depending on electronegativity of atoms in the molecule and the configuration

hydrogen bonding

special kind of very strong dipole-dipole

hydrogen bond donor, H covalently bonded to N, O, F, N, O, F very electronegative draw electrons towards them creates strong partial positive on covalently bonded H

hydrogen bond acceptor, N, O, F with lone pair(s), lone pairs strong partial negative charge that attract the partial positive H

gives water its special properties

water can form up to four hydrogen bonds per molecule, 2 as donor, 2 as acceptor

ion-dipole

interaction between ions with formal charge and dipoles with partial charges

also called van der Waals

IMF and phase change

boiling point

molar mass

kinds of intermolecular forces

disruptive forces vs attractive forces

heat of reaction

exothermic

endothermic

mixtures

solutions

homogenous

clear

solute of very small particles

colloids

homogenous

cloudy

scatters light, Tyndall effect

solute of small particles

won't settle

can't be filtered

suspensions

larger particles

solute can be filtered

will settle after a while

esterification

reactions

hydrolysis, ester bonds broken and molecule splits into components when water is added, H from water combines with .... and OH from water combines with ...

condensation, molecules combine, forming ester bond and liberating water molecule(s), an H from..... combines with the OH from .... to form H2O

miscellaneous

1 g / 1 mL for water