Ch6/7 brain pumped

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Ch6/7 brain pumped by Mind Map: Ch6/7 brain pumped

1. solutions

1.1. concentration

1.1.1. ppm

1.1.2. ppb

1.1.3. molarity

1.1.4. Equivalents

1.1.4.1. charge

1.1.5. percent

1.1.5.1. by weight

1.1.5.2. by volume

1.1.6. mass/mass

1.1.7. mass/volume

1.1.8. volume/volume

1.2. dilution

1.2.1. ci x vi = cf x vf

1.2.1.1. initial concentration x intial volume = final concentration x final volume

1.2.2. serial dilutions

1.3. solubility

1.3.1. like dissolves like

1.3.1.1. polar solvent dissolves polar solute

1.3.1.2. nonpolar solvent dissolves nonpolar solute

1.3.2. similarity of IMF determines solubility

1.4. solvation

1.4.1. molecules of solvent surrounding solute

1.5. hydration

1.5.1. molecules of water surrounding solute atoms, ions or molecules

1.5.2. partially positive part of water molecule attracted to partially negative or negative part of solute ion or molecule

1.5.3. partially negative part of water molecule attracted to partially positive or positive part of solute ion or molecule

1.6. phase

1.6.1. solid in liquid

1.6.2. liquid in liquid

1.6.3. gas in liquid

1.6.4. solid in solid

1.6.5. liquid in liquid

1.6.6. gas in gas

1.6.7. phase change occurs when disruptive forces are greater than attractive forces

2. lipids

2.1. nonpolar

2.2. fatty acids + glycerol = glycerides

2.2.1. monoglycerides

2.2.1.1. glycerol backbone and 1 fatty acid

2.2.2. diglycerides

2.2.2.1. glycerol backbone and 2 fatty acids

2.2.3. triglycerides

2.2.3.1. glycerol backbone and 3 fatty acids

2.2.4. glycerophospholipids

2.2.4.1. glycerol + fatty acids + phosphate + ....

2.3. dissolve only in nonpolar solvents

2.4. hydrophobic

2.4.1. lipids and water don't mix because water is polar and lipids are nonpolar

2.5. need to know lipids

3. cell membrane

3.1. transport

3.1.1. diffusion

3.1.2. facilitated diffusion

3.1.3. active transport

3.1.4. passive transport

3.2. proteins

3.3. phospholipid bilayer

3.4. channels

3.5. carbohydrates

4. diffusion

4.1. greater concentration to lower concentration

4.2. higher partial pressure to lower partial pressue

5. osmosis

5.1. naked egg experiment

5.1.1. semipermeable membrane

5.1.2. crenate

5.1.2.1. crenation

5.1.2.2. deflate or shrink due to loss of water

5.1.3. lyse

5.1.3.1. lysis

5.1.3.2. swells or bursts due to too much water

5.2. hypotonic

5.2.1. less concentrated in comparison

5.2.2. cell in hypotonic solution will lyse or burst

5.2.3. water will flow from hypotonic solution (more water) into cell (less water)

5.3. hypertonic

5.3.1. more concentrated in comparison

5.3.2. cell in hypertonic solution will crenate or deflate

5.3.3. water will flow out of cell (more water) to the solution (less water)

5.4. isotonic

5.4.1. same concentration

5.4.2. no change in cell in an isotonic solution

5.4.3. need to keep our bodily fluids isotonic with blood to avoid damage by lysis or crenation

5.4.4. isotonic fluid replacement solutions

5.4.4.1. Dextrose 5%

5.4.4.2. saline 0.90%

5.4.4.3. Untitled

6. intermolecular forces

6.1. London forces

6.1.1. only IMF for nonpolar molecules

6.1.2. weakest IMF, but if a lot of London forces act together, can be very strong

6.1.3. also called dispersion forces

6.1.4. also called induced dipole

6.1.4.1. temporary dipole induced by an ion or other force

6.1.4.2. temporary charge on one molecule induces dipole in its neighbor

6.1.5. temporary dipoles

6.1.5.1. due to shifting electron configuration

6.1.5.2. happens as molecules move around

6.1.6. active when plastic sticks together, for example

6.2. dipole-dipole

6.2.1. permament dipoles on polar molecules

6.2.2. stronger IMF

6.2.3. partial positive and partial negative charges

6.2.4. polar molecules like water, etc.

6.2.5. strength of dipole varies depending on electronegativity of atoms in the molecule and the configuration

6.3. hydrogen bonding

6.3.1. special kind of very strong dipole-dipole

6.3.2. hydrogen bond donor

6.3.2.1. H covalently bonded to N, O, F

6.3.2.2. N, O, F very electronegative draw electrons towards them creates strong partial positive on covalently bonded H

6.3.3. hydrogen bond acceptor

6.3.3.1. N, O, F with lone pair(s)

6.3.3.2. lone pairs strong partial negative charge that attract the partial positive H

6.3.4. gives water its special properties

6.3.5. water can form up to four hydrogen bonds per molecule

6.3.5.1. 2 as donor

6.3.5.2. 2 as acceptor

6.4. ion-dipole

6.4.1. interaction between ions with formal charge and dipoles with partial charges

6.5. also called van der Waals

7. IMF and phase change

7.1. boiling point

7.1.1. molar mass

7.1.2. kinds of intermolecular forces

7.2. disruptive forces vs attractive forces

7.3. heat of reaction

7.3.1. exothermic

7.3.2. endothermic

8. mixtures

8.1. solutions

8.1.1. homogenous

8.1.2. clear

8.1.3. solute of very small particles

8.2. colloids

8.2.1. homogenous

8.2.2. cloudy

8.2.3. scatters light

8.2.3.1. Tyndall effect

8.2.4. solute of small particles

8.2.5. won't settle

8.2.6. can't be filtered

8.3. suspensions

8.3.1. larger particles

8.3.2. solute can be filtered

8.3.3. will settle after a while

9. esterification

9.1. reactions

9.1.1. hydrolysis

9.1.1.1. ester bonds broken and molecule splits into components when water is added

9.1.1.1.1. H from water combines with .... and OH from water combines with ...

9.1.2. condensation

9.1.2.1. molecules combine, forming ester bond and liberating water molecule(s)

9.1.2.1.1. an H from..... combines with the OH from .... to form H2O

10. miscellaneous

10.1. 1 g / 1 mL for water