SOCIOLOGY AS FAMILY: topic 1-Couples

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SOCIOLOGY AS FAMILY: topic 1-Couples by Mind Map: SOCIOLOGY AS FAMILY: topic 1-Couples

1. domestic division of labour

1.1. parsons (1955): instrumental and expressive role

1.1.1. argues that 'DofL' is based on Biological differences: he claims that this division of labour is beneficial to both men and women, to their children & to wider society.

1.1.1.1. -NEW RIGHT -CONSERVATIVE THINKERS -SOME POLITICIANS

1.1.1.2. - WILLMOTT & YOUNG (1962)

1.1.1.2.1. men= are taking greater share of domestic tasks women = are now becoming wage earners

1.1.1.3. FEMINIST SOCIOLOGISTS

1.1.1.3.1. Oakley: -in 19th century, women were part of the labour force -but they were gradually excluded -this enforced women's economic dependance on men -therefore, the housewife role was socially constructed, rather than being women's natural role -20th century women = if they work, it's mostly related to caring e.g. nurse ( these jobs are also an extension of the housewife role but paid)

1.1.1.3.2. parson's view that division of labour is natural = NOT RIGHT - it only benefits men!

1.1.2. instrumental role: Husband . expressive role: wife

1.1.2.1. geared towards achieving success at work so he can provide for the family financially (the bread winner ) . geared towards primary socialisation and meeting the family's emotional needs.

1.2. joint and segregated conjugal roles

1.2.1. Elizabeth BOTT (1957) The two types of conjugal roles

1.2.1.1. segregated: -couple have separate roles (as above) -leisure is also separate

1.2.1.1.1. WILLMOTT AND YOUNG STUDY (1950): -studied traditional W/C extended families -in Bethnal Green, East London

1.2.1.2. reject 'march of progress' - little has changed -women still do most of the housework

1.2.1.3. Joint: -couple share tasks such as housework/childcare -they spend their leisure time together

1.3. feminist view of housework

1.3.1. anne OAKLEY

1.3.1.1. husbands are more likely to share in childcare only W&Y are only exaggerating - because husbands only helped'

1.3.2. WARD & HEATHERINGTON

1.3.2.1. men only help when their partners are not aound

1.4. the symmetrical family

1.4.1. WILLMOTT & YOUNG 'MARCH OF PROGRESS' 1973

1.4.1.1. Family life = gradually improving for all its members by becoming more equal and democratic

1.4.1.2. symmetrical family: roles of husbands & wives are mow much more similar

1.4.1.2.1. rise of symmetrical family= -changes in women's position -geographical mobility -new technology -higher standards of living

2. the impact of paid work

2.1. The trend towards equality

2.1.1. GERSHUNY (1994)

2.1.1.1. social values are gradually adapting to the fact that women are now working full time.

2.1.1.2. found that wives who worked FULL TIME did less domestic work.

2.1.1.2.1. wives who didn't go to work: did 83% of the housework

2.1.1.2.2. wives who worked full time: did 73% of the housework

2.1.1.3. Rosemary CROMPTON (1997)

2.1.1.3.1. economically, earnings remain UNEQUAL hence, so too will the division of labour at home.

2.2. the commercialisation of housework

2.2.1. SILVER & SCHOR

2.2.1.1. Stressed the economic developments in reducing the burden of housework on women:

2.2.1.1.1. 1. Housework = commercialised: GOODS & SERVICES are now massed produced and supplied by supermarkets

2.2.1.1.2. 2. women working: women can afford to buy these goods and services.

2.2.1.2. SOME critics argue that -for many poorer women, buying in expensive goods is not an option -commercialisation does not prove that couples are sharing the remaining chores equally

2.3. dual burden DOUBLE SHIFT

2.3.1. feminists argue that women have acquired a dual burden of paid work and unpaid housework

2.3.2. men benefit from both women's earnings AND their domestic labour

2.4. emotional work

2.4.1. DUNCOMBE & MARSDEN TRIPLE SHIFT

2.4.1.1. Women are expected not only to do a double shift of both housework and paid work, but also to work a triple shift that includes emotional work.

2.4.2. management of one's own and other people's emotions

2.5. lesbian couples and gender scripts

2.5.1. DUNNE (1999)

2.5.1.1. Lesbians are more likely to: -describe their relationship as equal and share housework and child care equally -give equal importance to both partners' careers. -view child care positively

2.5.1.2. supports radical feminist view that relationships between men and women are inevitably patriarchal and that women can only achieve equality in a same - sex marriage.

2.5.2. JEFFREY WEEKS (1999)

2.5.2.1. Argues that same sex relationships offer greater possibilities of equality because the division of labour is open to negotiation and agreement, and not based on patriarchal tradition.

2.6. summary

2.6.1. Feminists:

2.6.1.1. -they argue that in reality, the effect of this is limited. women still cotinue to shoulder a dual or triple burden. - & even if men are doing more at home, domestic tasks themselves remain gendered.

2.6.1.2. they argue that the root of the problem is patriarchy. patriarchy also ensures that women earn less at work and so have less bargaining power in the home

3. resources and decision-making in households

3.1. descision making and paid work

3.1.1. PHAL & VOGLER (1993) TWO types of control over family income:

3.1.1.1. 1.POOLING both partners have access to income & joint responsibility for expenditure e.g. bank account

3.1.1.2. 2. ALLOWANCE SYSTEM: men gives their allowance, out of which they have to budget to meet the family's needs.

3.1.2. EDGELL'S STUDY (1980)

3.1.2.1. very important descisions: -Husband / joint (but husband having the final say e.g. house

3.1.2.2. important descisions: - jointly , seldom (rarely) by wife alone e.g. children's education/ holidays

3.1.2.3. less important descisions: -usually wife e.g. home decor / food / clothes

4. domestic violence

4.1. the radical feminist expanation

4.1.1. they see the family and marriage as the key insitutions in patriarchal society and serves to preserve the power that all men have over all women.

4.1.2. argue that violence against women is part of a patriarchal system that maintain's men's power

4.1.2.1. Robertson Elliot (1996) not all men are aggressive and most are opposed to domestic violence radical feminists ignores this.

4.1.3. HOWEVER they fail to explain violence caused by women e.g. child abuse & violence against male partners

4.2. WILKINSON: domestic violence, inequality and stress

4.2.1. domestic violence = result of stress on family members caused by social inequality

4.2.1.1. those on low incomes or living in overcrowded accommodation are are likely to experience higher levels of stress

4.2.1.2. increases the risk of conflict: -worries about money, jobs and housing - tempers become frayed -lack of money and time restricts people social circle and reduces social support for those under stress.