Urban Air Pollution in Kuala Lumpur

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Urban Air Pollution in Kuala Lumpur by Mind Map: Urban Air Pollution in Kuala Lumpur

1. Solutions

1.1. Well planned cities

1.1.1. Building core infrastructure such as efficient transportation system

1.1.1.1. Investment in mass public transportation, bus rapid transit on dedicated lanes

1.1.1.2. Safe open areas for bicycles and walking

1.1.2. Reduce reliance for motor vehicles

1.1.2.1. Minimize the pollution impact on the environment caused by automobile

1.2. High density areas

1.2.1. Close proximity to shops, offices, amenities and other people

1.2.1.1. Encourage more usage of public transportation

1.2.1.2. Encourage more walking

2. Population dynamic

2.1. Understanding the causes

2.1.1. Urban Migration: Advancement of agriculture Looking for better opportunity

2.1.1.1. Economic Development of the country - Rapid Industralisation

2.2. Understanding the problem

2.2.1. Increase in demand for -Transportation system -Energy System _Infrastucture

2.2.1.1. No previous urban planning

2.2.1.2. Lack of public transportation

3. Pollution: Sulphur dioxide, SO2 Nitrogen Dioxide, NO2 Carbon Monoxide, CO Ground level Ozone, O3 Particulate matter with diameter 10 micron, PM10

3.1. Symptoms

3.1.1. Respiratory Problems -bronchitis, emphysema, asthma, etc

3.1.2. Environmental impact: Smog

4. 70-75% of air pollution from automobile

4.1. Transportation System in Kuala Lumpur

4.1.1. Problems

4.1.1.1. High Usage of Motor Vehicles

4.1.1.1.1. Economic aspects

4.1.1.1.2. Social Aspects

4.1.1.1.3. Government Aspects

4.1.2. Existing Solutions

4.1.2.1. 10th Malaysia Plan in June 2010 with the “Klang Valley Integrated Transportation System” proposal

4.1.2.1.1. Mass Rapid Transit, MRT, with 3 different phase

4.1.2.1.2. Extension of the existing Light Rail Transit, LRT

4.1.2.2. Skywalk

4.1.2.2.1. Encourage pedestrain mobility and addressing the last mile problem

5. Others from stationary sources and open burning

6. GAPS

6.1. Government/ Urban Design and Landscape

6.1.1. Building proper pedestrian linkages

6.1.1.1. Continuous covered walkways linking to major activity centres

6.1.1.1.1. Reduce short vehicle trips

6.1.1.2. Introduction of car-free zones

6.1.1.2.1. Pedestrian mobility

6.1.1.3. Increase the utilisation of public transportation

6.1.1.3.1. Connecting with terminals and transit stations

6.1.2. Imposed congestion tax/ carbon tax

6.1.3. Creating a compact city

6.1.3.1. Reduce urban sprawl

6.1.3.1.1. Building more township in suburban areas as a city of its own

6.2. Community empowerment

6.2.1. First/Last mile problem

6.2.1.1. Difficulty getting from their starting location to a transportation network or from the transportation hub to their final destination

6.2.1.1.1. Infrastructure for non-motorised transportation in the first/last mile

6.2.2. Public awareness

6.2.2.1. Encourage road users to have reduced carbon footprints

6.2.2.1.1. Opting for public transportation when possible

6.2.2.1.2. Walking/cycling for short distances

6.3. Technology advancement

6.3.1. Electric vehicles

6.3.1.1. Gradually implementing zero-emission vehicles in the streets