"Influence of Anthropogenic Activities on the Abundance of Posidonia oceanica within the Mykali S...

A general note table for the Poseidonia Project

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"Influence of Anthropogenic Activities on the Abundance of Posidonia oceanica within the Mykali Strait" by Mind Map: "Influence of Anthropogenic Activities on the Abundance of Posidonia oceanica within the Mykali Strait"

1. Policy

1.1. Peace Park

1.1.1. Monaco Research Base

1.1.2. Prince of Monaco

1.1.3. Link to Concept

1.1.4. Details for the Proposal

1.2. Obtain peace park report

1.3. Oinousses example of implementation of data for policy change

1.3.1. Documents within recommended reading / policy

1.4. Successful Marine Reservation found in Zakynthos

2. Water Quality Analysis

2.1. Kit to order

2.1.1. Cristina is sorting it out with Magda.

2.1.2. For use in the field:

2.1.2.1. Saltwater quality test kit - to test pH, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, phosphate.

2.1.2.2. Multiprobe - to test temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen.

2.1.2.3. Syringe - to collect water samples

2.1.3. For post survey testing:

2.1.3.1. Chromatography kit - to test for heavy metals.

2.2. Parameters of study

2.2.1. Temperature

2.2.1.1. Measured using: multiprobe

2.2.1.2. Reason for sampling: main variable for statistical analysis and life of biota

2.2.2. Salinity

2.2.2.1. Measured using: multiprobe/Mohr method to calibrate the probe (seawater sample needed)

2.2.2.2. Reason for sampling:

2.2.2.2.1. In too low salinity (<10ppt) seagrasses lose leaves & decrease in biomass

2.2.2.2.2. low salinity correlate with elevated dissolved organic matter

2.2.3. Dissolved oxygen

2.2.3.1. Measured using: multiprobe/Winkler method to calibrate the probe (seawater sample needed)

2.2.3.2. Reason for sampling:

2.2.3.2.1. Anoxia causes interferences with the N metabolism

2.2.3.2.2. Anoxia -> promoted production of toxic sulfide compounds -> affect below ground root system, and cause decrease in photosynthetic capacity and efficiency.

2.2.4. pH

2.2.4.1. Measured using: water quality test kit (don't know if/how much reliable -> pHmeter -> seawater sample needed)

2.2.4.2. Measured using: multiprobe

2.2.4.3. Reason for sampling: Acidity of seawater indicates any signs of ocean acidification, which has detrimental impacts on species with calcite (calcium carbonate) shells by breaking down calcite.

2.2.5. Nutrients

2.2.5.1. N

2.2.5.1.1. Nitrate

2.2.5.1.2. Reason for sampling: Elevated nitrate levels are an indication of anthropogenic activity relating to fertiliser and pesticide use. This can bring about algal blooms or enhanced epiphyte growth through eutrophication.

2.2.5.1.3. Nitrite

2.2.5.2. Phosphate

2.2.5.2.1. Measured using: water quality test kit

2.2.5.2.2. Reason for sampling: Elevated phosphate levels are an indication of anthropogenic activity relating to fertiliser and pesticide use. This can bring about algal blooms or enhanced epiphyte growth through eutrophication.

2.2.5.3. Reason for sampling: Isn't the reason same for all the nutrients? (To quantify the level of eutrophication etc.)

2.2.5.3.1. yes, are there potassium sampling kits?

2.2.5.4. Measured using: Rupert's protocol (Kit from Vanti)

2.2.6. Ammonia

2.2.6.1. Reason for sampling: Elevated levels of ammonia can cause toxicity in seagrass which can cause growth reduction

2.2.7. Heavy metals

2.2.7.1. Measured using: HPLC, GC-MS, ICP-EAS & ASV

2.2.7.2. Reason for sampling: Posidonia oceanica is an endemic species of the Mediterranean Sea and also a metal bioindicator -> ecotoxicological interest and public health concern

2.2.7.3. Lepidochronology

3. Project Aims

3.1. Aim 1: To indicate that anthropogenic output areas from the Samos Mainland into the Mycale Strait are causing or have the potential to cause degradation of Posidonia oceanica that inhabits the Strait.

3.1.1. Objective 1: Create a map of land usage in Samos, indicating area within close proximity to the Mycale Strait where anthropogenic output is high.

3.1.2. Objective 2: Run transects to collect and analyse surface and seafloor water samples at selected locations within the Mycale Strait; both areas of high and low anthropogenic output.

3.1.3. Objective 3: Along the same transects survey seagrass quality using quadrat sampling techniques to measure seagrass health (shoot length, density, percentage of dead matter), percentage cover.

3.2. Aim 2: To prove that illegal bottom trawling is not only occurring but also causing severe degradation to Posidonia oceanica by ripping up areas of seagrass during trawling.

3.2.1. Objective 1: Using sonar echo sounding technology run transects within the Mycale Strait to gather data on the presence of seagrass and any scars that have been caused by trawling.

3.2.2. Objective 2: Produce a map indicating the areas where trawl scars were observed.

3.3. Aim 4: To produce a detailed map showing the presence and abundance of Posidonia oceanica within the Mycale Strait to both reinforce the project and to be used as a reference point for future surveys.

3.3.1. Objective 1: Create a panoramic image of the Mycale Strait using stills of drone footage.

3.3.2. Objective 2: Map seagrass presence in shallow water by using detailed drone map.

3.3.3. Objective 3: Survey deeper water using a sonar side scan to run transect lines along the deeper water of the Mycale Strait.

3.3.4. Objective 4: Create a map of seagrass presence in deeper water using data from the side scan sonar.

3.4. Aim 3: To indicate that the growth of anthropogenic activity in Samos has led to an overall decrease in primary productivity within the Mycale Strait.

3.4.1. Objective 1: Use past and present satellite radiation data to produce a map showing the change in levels of photosynthesis within the Mycale Strait.

3.5. Aim 5: Collect and compare past sonar data of the Mycale Strait to compare the extent of seagrass bed coverage over time, and also to identify any changes in the numbers of trawl scars within the seagrass.

3.5.1. Objective 1: Collect any past side scan data from within the Mycale Strait.

3.5.2. Objective 2: Use seagrass map from survey to produce comparison maps for past and present seagrass coverage.

4. GIS

4.1. Get Detailed Land Usage Map

4.2. Present Final Survey Area

4.2.1. 12km long coastline

4.2.2. Image

4.2.3. 14.24 sq km

4.3. Find Area of Low Usage

4.3.1. Lipsi!

4.4. Fix issue with converting Trails to Routes in Lowrance

4.5. Update HDS-10 Software

5. Drone Footage

5.1. Ideally we want the entire coast line of the survey area

5.2. Maybe Lipsi As Well

5.3. Guy is available Monday and Wednesday after 1500

6. Useful Information

6.1. Posidonia oceanica

6.1.1. Facts

6.1.1.1. 1. Grows in depths up to 50 metres

6.1.1.2. 2. It is illegal to fish within 1.5 nautical miles of the shoreline or in water less than 50 metres deep in Samos, meaning that theoretically, no damage should ever occur to seagrass from trawling.

6.1.1.3. 3. A bioindicator: due to its proven vulnerability to large changes in water quality as well as its slow growing nature, seagrass presence and growth acts as a bioindicator of good water quality.

6.1.1.4. 4. Regarded as a threatened species: according to the Red list of marine threatened species of the Mediterranean.

6.1.2. Vulnerability

6.1.2.1. Physical damage

6.1.2.1.1. Turbidity

6.1.2.1.2. Trawling

6.1.2.1.3. Temperature

6.1.2.1.4. Blowouts

6.1.2.2. Chemical damage

6.1.2.2.1. Nutrients: Excess nutrient discharges from fertiliser and pesticide usage can cause eutrophication.  This can lead to algal blooms and elevated epiphyte growth.

6.1.2.2.2. Heavy metals impact sites on the photosynthetic apparatus; these include thylakoid membrane stability, photophosphorylation, inhibition of chlorophyll synthesis, blocking electron transport or inhibition of the Calvin Cycle enzymes These consequently change the photosynthetic rate (measured as O2 production) and productivity itself.

6.1.2.2.3. Microplastics:

6.1.2.2.4. Acidification: Some studies have shown that with increasing ocean acidification, seagrass can provide a shelter for species who have a carbonate shell through its photosynthetic activity acting as a buffer against acidification. This could therefore provide an incredibly important refuge against ocean acidification for many marine fauna.

6.1.2.2.5. PCP's:

6.1.2.3. Biological damage

6.1.2.3.1. (eutrophication)

6.1.2.3.2. Substitution

6.1.2.3.3. Invasive species

6.2. Sea Grass Analysis

6.2.1. Mapping

6.2.1.1. Shallow

6.2.1.1.1. Satellite Imagery

6.2.1.1.2. Drone Footage for Data Gathering

6.2.1.2. Deep

6.2.1.2.1. Sonar

6.2.1.2.2. Camera ROV

6.2.2. Health Analysis

6.2.2.1. Snorkel Survey

6.2.2.1.1. Markers of Health

6.2.2.1.2. Abundance Testing

6.3. Mykali Straight

6.3.1. Main pollutant is bleach and cleaning products

6.3.2. few epiphites or invasive species

7. Snorkel Survey

7.1. Get Depth Watch from Anastasia

7.2. Equipment

7.2.1. GoPro

7.2.2. GPS Device?

7.2.2.1. Garmin 64st

7.2.3. Quadrat

7.2.3.1. Need to get Proper Quadrat

7.2.3.1.1. Located within Dive Shed

7.2.3.2. Need to Get Waterproof Label to use alongside Quadrat

7.2.4. Multiprobe? - ask Kristina

7.2.4.1. NEED IT!

7.3. Need to Familiarise with Snorkel Techniques

7.3.1. Ayleen will check Methods

7.4. Collect Samples

7.4.1. Heavy Metal Content Asssay - Rhizome Analysis

7.5. Will compare results to area of low anthropogenic use

7.5.1. Lipsi

7.6. Equipment Checklist