IDEAs 14 Categories of Disabilities

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IDEAs 14 Categories of Disabilities by Mind Map: IDEAs 14 Categories of Disabilities

1. Autisim

1.1. "This is a developmental disability. It affects verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction. It means a developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, generally evident before age three, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance."

1.2. Characheristics

1.2.1. 1.) Communication problems

1.2.2. 2.) Difficulty relating to people, things, and events

1.2.3. 3.) Playing with toys and objects in unusual ways

1.2.4. 4.) Difficulty adjusting to changes in routine or to familiar surroundings

1.2.5. 5.) Repetitive body movements or behaviors.

2. Deaf-Blindness

2.1. This is a person who has some degree of loss in both vision and hearing. This particular combination of losses limits access to auditory and visual information. It "means concomitant [simultaneous] hearing and visual impairments, the combination of which causes such severe communication and other developmental and educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for children with deafness or children with blindness."

2.2. Causes

2.2.1. 1.) Age related

2.2.2. 2.) Genetic conditions, such as Usher syndrome

2.2.3. 3.) Cerebral palsy

2.2.4. 4.) eye problems associated with increasing age, such as cataracts

3. Deafness

3.1. "Means a hearing impairment so severe that a child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplification, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance"

3.2. Types of Hearing Losses

3.2.1. "Conductive hearing losses: caused by diseases or obstructions in the outer or middle ear. A person with a conductive hearing loss usually is able to use a hearing aid well or can be helped medically or surgically."

3.2.2. "Sensorineural hearing losses: result from damage to the delicate sensory hair cells of the inner ear or the nerves that supply it."

3.2.3. "Mixed hearing loss: refers to a combination of conductive and sensorineural loss and means that a problem occurs in both the outer or middle and the inner ear."

3.2.4. Central hearing loss: results from damage or impairment to the nerves or nuclei of the central nervous system, either in the pathways to the brain or in the brain itself.

3.3. How sound is measured

3.3.1. 1.) Loudness or intensity (measured in units called decibels, dB)

3.3.2. 2.) Frequency or pitch (measured in units called hertz, Hz).

3.4. Modifications for disability in the classroom

3.5. Assistive technology available: Assistive listening devices (ALD)

3.5.1. FM

3.5.2. Infrared

3.5.3. Induction Loop

3.5.4. 1:1 Communicators

4. Developmental Delay

4.1. This is when a child does not reach its developmental milestones at the expected time. "It means a delay in one or more of the following areas: physical development; cognitive development; communication; social or emotional development; or adaptive [behavioral] development."

4.2. There are 5 developmental areas

4.2.1. 1.) Physical development (fine motor skills, gross motor skills)

4.2.2. 2.) Cognitive development (intellectual abilities)

4.2.3. 3.) Communication development (speech and language)

4.2.4. 4.) Social or emotional development (social skills, emotional control)

4.2.5. 5.) Adaptive development (self-care skills)

5. Emotional Disturbance

5.1. "A condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects a child’s educational performance:"

5.1.1. (A) "An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors."

5.1.2. (B) "An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers."

5.1.3. (C) "Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances."

5.1.4. (D) "A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression."

5.1.5. (E) "A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems.”

5.2. Characteristics

5.2.1. "Hyperactivity (short attention span, impulsiveness)"

5.2.2. "Aggression or self-injurious behavior (acting out, fighting)"

5.2.3. "Withdrawal (not interacting socially with others, excessive fear or anxiety)"

5.2.4. "Immaturity (inappropriate crying, temper tantrums, poor coping skills)"

5.2.5. "Learning difficulties (academically performing below grade level)"

6. Hearing Impairment

6.1. "Means an impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance but is not included under the definition of “deafness.”"

6.2. Causes

6.2.1. 1.) Acquired: meaning that the loss occurred after birth, due to illness or injury Acquired Causes: build up of fluid behind the eardrum ear infections (known as otitis media) childhood diseases, such as mumps, measles, or chicken pox head trauma

6.2.2. 2.) Congenital: meaning that the hearing loss or deafness was present at birth. Congenital Causes: a family history of hearing loss or deafness infections during pregnancy (such as rubella) complications during pregnancy (such as the Rh factor, maternal diabetes, or toxicity)

7. Intellectual Disability

7.1. "Intellectual disability is a term used when a person has certain limitations in mental functioning and in skills such as communicating, taking care of him or herself, and social skills. These limitations will cause a child to learn and develop more slowly than a typical child. Means significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently [at the same time] with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance"

7.2. Causes

7.2.1. Genetic conditions

7.2.2. Problems during pregnancy

7.2.3. Problems at birth

7.2.4. Health problems

7.3. Signs of intellectual disabilities

7.3.1. sit up, crawl, or walk later than other children

7.3.2. learn to talk later, or have trouble speaking

7.3.3. find it hard to remember things

7.3.4. not understand how to pay for things

7.3.5. have trouble understanding social rules

7.3.6. have trouble seeing the consequences of their actions

7.3.7. have trouble solving problems

7.3.8. have trouble thinking logically

7.4. Modifications for disability in the classroom

7.4.1. Quiet workspaces

7.4.2. Functional day-to-day activities

7.4.3. Repetitions of concepts throughout the day

7.4.4. Teacher- student ratio: smaller groups of students

7.4.5. Hands on learning

7.4.6. Specific Schedules

7.5. Assistive technology available

7.5.1. Ipads and other tablets

7.5.2. Interactive and Talkative eBooks

7.5.3. Computers

8. Multiple Disabilities

8.1. "Concomitant [simultaneous] impairments (such as intellectual disability-blindness, intellectual disability-orthopedic impairment, etc.), the combination of which causes such severe educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in a special education program solely for one of the impairments."

8.2. Causes

8.2.1. Chromosomal abnormalities

8.2.2. Premature birth

8.2.3. Difficulties after birth

8.2.4. Poor development of the brain or spinal cord

8.2.5. Infections

8.2.6. Genetic disorders

8.2.7. Injuries from accidents

9. Orthopedic Impairment

9.1. "Means a severe orthopedic impairment that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term includes impairments caused by a congenital anomaly, impairments caused by disease (e.g., poliomyelitis, bone tuberculosis), and impairments from other causes (e.g.,cerebral palsy, amputations, and fractures or burns that cause contractures)"

9.2. Educational Challanges

9.2.1. Non-accessible transportation

9.2.2. Trouble maneuvering around the classroom

9.2.3. Difficulty navigating school hallways

9.2.4. Earning mandated physical education credit

9.2.5. Communicating effectively

9.3. 3 Main areas of disorders

9.3.1. 1.) Neuromotor impairments: "an abnormality of, or damage to, the brain, spinal cord, or nervous system that sends impulses to the muscles of the body. These impairments are acquired at or before birth, and often result in complex motor problems that can affect several body systems" Most common types Cerebral Palsy Spina Bifida

9.3.2. 2.) Degenerative diseases: "composed of various diseases that affect motor development" Most common type Muscular dystrophy

9.3.3. 3.) Musculoskeletal disorders: "composed of various conditions that can result in various levels of physical limitations" Most common types Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis limb deficiency

10. Other Health Impairment

10.1. It "means having limited strength, vitality, or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli, that results in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment"

10.1.1. It is due to chronic or acute health problems such as: ADD and AH/HD Diabetes Epilepsy Heart conditions Hemophilia Lead poisoning Leukemia Nephritis Rheumatic fever Sickle cell anemia Tourette syndrome

10.2. Adversely affects a child’s educational performance

11. Specific Learning Disability

11.1. "Means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations, including conditions such as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia."

11.2. Skills most often affected

11.2.1. reading, writing, listening, speaking, reasoning, and doing math

11.3. Names of Certain learning disabilities

11.3.1. "Dyslexia—which refers to difficulties in reading"

11.3.2. "Dysgraphia—which refers to difficulties in writing"

11.3.3. "Dyscalcula—which refers to difficulties in math."

12. Speech or Language Impairment

12.1. "Means a communication disorder, such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment, or a voice impairment, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.”

12.2. Four major areas in which these impairments occur

12.2.1. 1.) "Articulation: speech impairments where the child produces sounds incorrectly (e.g., lisp, difficulty articulating certain sounds, such as “l” or “r”)"

12.2.2. 2.) "Fluency: speech impairments where a child’s flow of speech is disrupted by sounds, syllables, and words that are repeated, prolonged, or avoided and where there may be silent blocks or inappropriate inhalation, exhalation, or phonation patterns"

12.2.3. 3.) "Voice: speech impairments where the child’s voice has an abnormal quality to its pitch, resonance, or loudness"

12.2.4. 4.) "Language: language impairments where the child has problems expressing needs, ideas, or information, and/or in understanding what others say."

12.3. Characteristics

12.3.1. improper use of words and their meanings

12.3.2. inability to express ideas

12.3.3. inappropriate grammatical patterns

12.3.4. reduced vocabulary

12.3.5. inability to follow directions

13. Traumatic Brain Injury

13.1. "Means an acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term applies to open or closed head injuries resulting in impairments in one or more areas, such as cognition; language; memory; attention; reasoning; abstract thinking; judgment; problem-solving; sensory, perceptual, and motor abilities; psychosocial behavior; physical functions; information processing; and speech."

13.2. Signs of Traumatic Brain Injury

13.2.1. Physical disabilities

13.2.2. Difficulties with thinking

13.2.3. Social, behavioral, or emotional problems

13.3. Head injuries that can cause changes in one or more of these areas

13.3.1. thinking and reasoning

13.3.2. understanding words

13.3.3. remembering things

13.3.4. paying attention

13.3.5. solving problems

13.3.6. thinking abstractly

13.3.7. talking

13.3.8. behaving

13.3.9. walking and other physical activities

13.3.10. seeing and/or hearing

13.3.11. learning

14. Visual Impairment Including Blindness

14.1. "Means an impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term includes both partial sight and blindness"

14.2. Signs of a Visual Impairment

14.2.1. "Eyes that don’t move together when following an object or a face"

14.2.2. "Crossed eyes, eyes that turn out or in, eyes that flutter from side to side or up and down, or eyes that do not seem to focus"

14.2.3. "Eyes that bulge, dance, or bounce in rapid rhythmic movements"

14.2.4. "Repeated shutting or covering of one eye"

14.2.5. "Unusual degree of clumsiness, such as frequent bumping into things or knocking things over"

14.2.6. "Frequent squinting, blinking, eye-rubbing, or face crunching, especially when there’s no bright light present"

14.2.7. "Sitting too close to the TV or holding toys and books too close to the face"

14.2.8. "Avoiding tasks and activities that require good vision"

15. Work Cited:

15.1. U. (n.d.). Categories of Disability Under IDEA | Center for Parent Information and Resources. Retrieved April 9, 2016, from

15.2. T. (n.d.). Orthopedic Impairments - Project IDEAL. Retrieved April 9, 2016, from