Categories of Disability Under IDEA

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Categories of Disability Under IDEA by Mind Map: Categories of Disability Under IDEA

1. Autism

1.1. A mental condition, present from early childhood, characterized by great difficulty in communicating and forming relationships with other people and in using language and abstract concepts.

1.2. Modifications and Accomodations

1.2.1. Allow for time-outs as necessary (in room and out of room)

1.2.2. Follow PBS and reward the student when on task

1.2.3. Allow the student to use a visual schedule

1.2.4. Provide the student with visual choices

1.2.5. Provide written and verbal instructions

1.2.6. If-Then/First-Then Boards

1.3. Assistive Technology

1.3.1. For students with AAC devices allow time for them to respond.

2. Developmental Delay

2.1. The condition of a child being less developed mentally or physically than is normal for its age.

2.2. Modifications and Accomodations

2.2.1. Seating Arrangements - Seating them next to a student that can assist them with out being disruptive to their work can really be helpful to their learning.

2.2.2. Routines - Students with developmental delay struggle with independence and one way to build that behavior is to develop daily routines for them to follow.

2.2.3. Predictability - Decreases unwanted behavior brought on by not understanding expectations.

2.3. Assistive Technology



2.4. Case Study Attached

3. Deaf Blindness

3.1. Concomitant hearing and visual impairments, the combination that creates such severe communication and other developmental and educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education in programs solely for children with deafness or children with blindness.

3.2. Accommodations and Modifications

3.2.1. touch cues

3.2.2. gestures

3.2.3. object symbols

3.2.4. picture symbols

3.2.5. sign language

3.2.6. finger spelling

3.2.7. Signed English

3.2.8. Pidgin Signed English

3.2.9. Braille writing and reading

3.2.10. Tadoma method of speech reading

3.2.11. American Sign Language

3.2.12. large print writing and reading

3.2.13. lip-reading speech

3.3. Assistive Technology

3.3.1. Hearing aids / FM Systems (Auditory Trainers)

3.3.2. Glasses / Low vision devices (magnifiers, monoculars, CCTV, etc.)

3.3.3. Alerting devices (vibrating alarms, watches, etc.)

3.3.4. Captioning (TV and Video)

3.3.5. TDD, telebraille or relay services for making phone calls

3.3.6. Calendar system (boxes, boards and posters - using objects, pictures or symbols)

3.3.7. Easel, book stands

3.3.8. Calculators

3.3.9. Light box

3.3.10. Augmentative Communication devices

3.3.11. Computer aided real time (CART)

3.3.12. Lamps or spotlights on interpreter or materials

3.3.13. Intervener, interpreter or interpreter-tutor

4. Deafness

4.1. Partially or wholly lacking or deprived of the sense of hearing; unable to hear.

4.2. Modifications, Accommodations, and Assistive Technology


5. Emotional Disturbance

5.1. A condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects a child's educational performance:

5.1.1. A. An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory or health factors.

5.1.2. B. An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers.

5.1.3. C. Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances.

5.1.4. D. A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression.

5.1.5. E. A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems. The term includes schizophrenia. The term does not apply to children who are socially maladjusted, unless it is determined that they have an emotional disturbance (ED).

5.2. Assistive Technology


6. Hearing Impairment

6.1. Is a hearing loss that prevents a person from totally receiving sounds through the ear.

6.2. Modifications and Accomodations

6.2.1. Preferential seating (Near the teacher, away from noise)

6.2.2. Writing assignments and directions for student to read

6.2.3. Speak facing the student

6.2.4. Copy class notes for the student

6.2.5. Accommodate testing (extended time, placement)

6.2.6. Reduce classroom noise as much as possible

6.3. Assissitive Technology

6.3.1. Utilize FM system/Sound Field as prescribed by your SLP.

6.4. Case Study Attached in Comment

7. Intelectual Disability

7.1. Characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning (reasoning, learning, problem solving) and in adaptive behavior, which covers a range of everyday social and practical skills. This disability originates before the age of 18.

7.2. Modifications and Accomodations

7.2.1. Functional Activities

7.2.2. Repetition and Concepts over the Day

7.2.3. Quiet Work Space

7.2.4. Hands On Learning

7.3. Assistive Technology


8. Multiple Disabilities

8.1. A term for a person with several disabilities, such as a sensory disability associated with a motor disability.

8.2. Modifications and Accommodations

8.2.1. Focusing closely on a different students' IEP document and goals each day or half day. Get out their IEP and read through it at the start of the day. Ensure your programming closely aligns with their goals and consider whether you need to do any baselining of behaviours or skills, documentation or reporting tasks for that student. Think to yourself, 'Do I need to prepare some Makaton signs and symbols before class for this student?' 'Do I need to discuss their goals with a volunteer or aide so they are focused on the same goals as I am?' etc.

8.2.2. Use volunteers and aides with care, so that they can safely carry out particular tasks that you set for a student which are labour intensive and require one to one support, but in a way which ensures you are meeting your duty of care requirements.

8.2.3. Consider physical movement tasks that can be done without direct teacher support, such as hitting a soft ball suspended from a string from the ceiling, or sorting through shapes in a feely box or manipulating a textured toy or object.

8.2.4. Change your environment regularly so that you and your students get out in the fresh air to complete learning tasks.

8.2.5. Inclusion intentions for students with severe and multiple disabilities sometimes leads teachers to do tasks they shouldn't really do as part of their work, such as doing a lift or transfer that is dangerous.

8.3. Assistive Technology

8.3.1. Use technology such as iPods, taped stories, electronic versions of books available online or music to cater for some students in your group when your hands and mind are busy elsewhere in the room. This is a useful inclusion strategy which can relate directly to literacy and numeracy goals by reinforcing learning or providing additional experiences.

9. Orthopedic Impairment

9.1. A severe orthopedic impairment that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

9.2. Modifications:

9.2.1. Special seating arrangements, larger tables; Note-taking assistance. Instruction focused on impairments in and the Improvement of gross and fine motor skills. Securing assistive technology and augmentative communication devices. Extended time to complete assignments. Teacher awareness of student’s condition and its affect (such as tiring easily).

9.3. Assistive Technology

9.3.1. Speech recognition software. Alternative keyboards and mice. Augmentative and alternative communication devices. Word prediction software. Screen reading software. Academic software for students with disabilities.

10. Other Health Impairment

10.1. Having limited strength, vitality, or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli, that results in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment, that is due to chronic or acute health problems such as asthma, attention deficit disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, diabetes, epilepsy, a heart condition, hemophilia, lead poisoning, leukemia, nephritis, rheumatic fever, sickle cell anemia, and Tourette syndrome; and adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

10.2. Modifications and Accommodations

10.2.1. medications kept at school

10.2.2. rest times through the school day

10.2.3. a reduction in work load to lessen fatigue

10.2.4. assistive technology

10.2.5. ergonomic work stations

10.2.6. two sets of books (one at school and one at home)

10.2.7. note takers

10.2.8. scribe

10.2.9. trained aides to assist with medical-related needs such as g-tube feedings, toileting, wheelchair transfers, etc.

10.3. Assistive Technology


11. Specific Learning Disability

11.1. A disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell or to do mathematical calculations.

11.2. Modifications and Accommodations

11.2.1. For some students who read slowly or with difficulty, a “read-along” technique may be used with taped texts and materials to allow learning of printed materials.

11.2.2. For students with memory problems or difficulty taking notes, a fellow student might share notes; the student might tape the lesson; or the teacher might provide a copy of the lesson outline.

11.2.3. For students who read below expected levels, educational videos and films or talking books can provide the general information that cannot be acquired from the printed page.

11.2.4. For students with short term memory problems (e.g., understand math processes, but have short term memory problems that interfere with remembering math facts), a table of facts or a calculator could be provided.

11.2.5. For students whose handwriting is slow, illegible or includes many reversed letters, a cassette recorder or a computer with word processing software could be used for written work or tests.

11.2.6. For students who have difficulty with spelling, a “misspeller’s dictionary” or computerized spell checker can help make written materials readable.

11.2.7. For students who have difficulty reading cursive, small, or crowded print, typed handouts, large print, or double spaced materials can help.

11.2.8. To develop memory and listening skills, poetry, rhymes, songs, audio-taped materials and mnemonics may improve performance.

11.2.9. To teach spelling, the teacher might use a multi-sensory approach that combines saying, spelling aloud, and writing words.

11.2.10. Ways to improve vocabulary and comprehension can include a student-developed file of vocabulary words and the use of word webs and visual organizers to relate words and ideas heard or read on paper. A dictionary or thesaurus, suited to the child’s learning level, is also an excellent tool for building vocabulary, spelling and reading comprehension.

11.2.11. For students who have difficulty organizing time, materials and information, a variety of approaches can be used, including:

11.2.12. a quiet, uncluttered homework space

11.2.13. alarm watch

11.2.14. purchased texts that can be marked with a highlighter

11.2.15. a homework assignment diary coordinated between home and school

11.2.16. study skills instruction

11.2.17. a personally-developed date-book or scheduler

11.2.18. For students who copy inaccurately, but need written practice to solidify learning, changes that may help include: leaving a space directly under each word, phrase or sentence, or having handouts on the desk for those who can’t copy from the blackboard or take dictation accurately. For left-handed students, place the list of words at the right margin. For students whose writing is large, provide enlarged spaces for “fill in the blank” activities.

11.2.19. For students who seem to process auditory information slowly (e.g., not fully understanding questions asked, recalling needed information, or forming an appropriate answer), be patient. Allow sufficient “wait-time for the answer or provide the questions in written form.

11.2.20. Oral and written language should be taught together as much as possible. Illustrations in a book being read should be used to generate conversation, vocabulary and concepts that will relate to what is to be read. Material that is read can be translated into a verbal summary, a word web, a visual organizer, or a computer presentation.

11.2.21. Students who find reading slow and difficult may benefit from supplementing the subject matter being read with video tapes, DVDs, captioned TV programs, or computer software.

11.3. Assistive Learning Disability


12. Speech or Language Impairment

12.1. A communication disorder such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment, or a voice impairment that adversely affects a child's educational performance.

12.2. Modifications

12.2.1. Based on speech severity, allow the student to substitute oral assignments with written papers. Modify grading based on speech impairment. Allow the student time to express themselves (do not interrupt a slow speaker) Provide SLP with spelling/vocabulary list. Allow the student to use AAC to help communicate with peers.

12.3. Modifications - Language Impaired

12.3.1. Provide the student with information on topics prior to going over them in class

12.3.2. Minimize classroom noise/distractions

12.3.3. Provide copy of class notes

12.3.4. Give assignments orally and written

12.3.5. Give simple one step directions

12.3.6. Help students find study partners

12.3.7. Provide peer tutor

12.3.8. Allow extended time for assignments and test

12.3.9. Modify the length of assignments

12.3.10. Private location for testing

12.3.11. Allow adaptive technology (spell checker, calculator, AAC)

12.3.12. Provide SLP with spelling/vocabulary list

12.3.13. Pre-teach

12.4. Assistive Technology


13. Traumatic Brain Injury

13.1. Is a nondegenerative, noncongenital insult to the brain from an external mechanical force, possibly leading to permanent or temporary impairment of cognitive, physical, and psychosocial functions, with an associated diminished or altered state of consciousness.

13.2. Modifications and Accommodations

13.2.1. Allow additional time to complete in-class assignments

13.2.2. Allow for extra or extended breaks

13.2.3. Provide student with instructor’s notes or help student obtain quality notes from other students

13.2.4. Allow student to audio record lectures for later playback

13.2.5. Provide both oral and written instructions; clarify instructions

13.2.6. For lectures, provide student with an outline or study guide when available

13.2.7. Allow use of a portable computer with spelling and grammar checks for assignments and note-taking

13.2.8. In grading work, reduce emphasis on spelling and grammatical errors unless it is the purpose of the assignment

13.2.9. Permit referencing a dictionary or thesaurus for assignments

13.2.10. Provide preferential seating at or near the front of the classroom

13.2.11. Reduce quantity of work required, in favor of quality.

13.2.12. Avoid placing student in high pressure situations (e.g., short time frames, extensive volume of work; highly competitive)

13.2.13. Exempt student from reading aloud in front of classmates because of impaired reading skills.

13.3. Assistive Technology


14. Visual Impairment, Including Blindness

14.1. An impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a child's educational performance.

14.2. Modifications and Accommodations

14.2.1. Use specific directions in relation to the student's body orientation. For example, use the terms “straight," “left," and “right" to help guide the student, and avoid terms such as "over here," “there," which have no meaning to him;

14.2.2. Provide notes, handouts, assignments and other printed material by audiotape, in Braille, or with magnified print and enhanced images;

14.2.3. Carefully describe important visual occurrences of learning activities;

14.2.4. Verbally spell any new or technical words. This will help not only the student with visual impairments, but also other students;

14.2.5. Use real objects for three-dimensional representations when possible;

14.2.6. Adapt instructions for auditory or tactile presentation;

14.2.7. Allow the student to use a tape recorder for recording lectures, class discussions, and presentations;

14.2.8. Clearly present assignments and their goals to students during review time;

14.2.9. Review assignment instructions orally.

14.3. Assistive Technology


14.4. Case Study Attached

15. References

15.1. References attached to Title