Abnormal Psych

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Abnormal Psych by Mind Map: Abnormal Psych

1. Somatic Symptom Disorders

1.1. Types

1.1.1. Conversion Disorder

1.1.1.1. people who report the existence of a severe physical problem such as paralysis or blindness, and they will, in fact, be unable to move their arms or see. YET no biological reason for such problems can be identified.

1.1.2. Hypochondriasis

1.1.2.1. complaining frequently about physical problems for which doctors are unable to find a cause.

1.2. Definition

1.2.1. when a person experiences a physical problem in the absence of any identifiable physical cause.

1.3. Causes

1.3.1. Psychodynamic

1.3.1.1. merely outward manifestations of unresolved unconscious conflicts

1.3.2. Behaviorists

1.3.2.1. people with somatic symptom disorders are being reinforced for their behavior.

2. Anxiety Disorders

2.1. Panic Disorder

2.1.1. suffers from acute episodes of intense anxiety without any apparent provication

2.1.2. Panic attacks tend to increase in frequency, and people often suffer additional anxiety due to anticipating the attacks.

2.2. GAD

2.2.1. experiences constant, low-level anxiety. constantly feels nervous and out of sorts.

2.3. Causes

2.3.1. Psychoanalytic

2.3.1.1. caused by unresolved, unconcious

2.3.2. behaviorists

2.3.2.1. assert that anxiety disorders are learned

2.3.3. cognitive

2.3.3.1. believe that disorders result from dysfunctional ways of thinking

2.4. PTSD

2.4.1. when you aren't able to express your initial emotion pain, and has it bottled up...the pain comes out as emotional arousal (emotional outbursts of behavior

3. Dissociative Disorders

3.1. Dissociative amnesia

3.1.1. when a person can't remember things and no physiological basis for the disruption in memory can be identified

3.2. DID (Dissociative Identity Disorder)

3.2.1. Formerly known as multiple personality disorder

3.2.2. when a person has several personalities rather than one integrated personality. The two personalities will often be the opposite of each other.

3.2.3. Possible causes: people with DID commonly have a history of sexual assault or some other terrible childhood trauma

3.2.4. Critics suggest that some people diagnosed with DID may have been led to role-play the disorder inadvertently as a result of their therapists' questions and media portrayals

3.2.5. related to having more receptors for acetylcholine

3.3. Organic Amnesia

3.3.1. biologically induced amnesia

3.4. Cause

3.4.1. Psychoanalytic

3.4.1.1. believe that dissociative disorders result when an extremely traumatic event has been so thoroughly prepressed that a split in consciousness results.

3.4.2. Behaviorists

3.4.2.1. people who have experienced trauma simply find not thinking about it to be rewarding, thus producing amnesia or, in extreme cases, DID

4. Bipolar and Related Disorders

4.1. bipolar disorder/manic depressison

4.1.1. depressed and manic episodes

4.2. Schizophrenic Disorders

4.2.1. Defined as

4.2.1.1. disordered, distorted thinking often demonstrated through delusions, hallucinations, disorganized language, and/or unusual affect and motor behavior

4.2.2. Subcategories/Symptoms

4.2.2.1. Negative Symptoms

4.2.2.1.1. Catatonia

4.2.2.1.2. Inappropriate Affect

4.2.2.1.3. Flat Affect

4.2.2.1.4. more low key and less emotion, involve not having something

4.2.2.2. Positive Symptoms

4.2.2.2.1. Delusions

4.2.2.2.2. Neologisms

4.2.2.2.3. Hallucinations

4.2.2.2.4. Disorganized Speech (Word Salad)

4.2.2.2.5. more lively and emotion, involves having something

4.2.2.3. Waxy Flexibility

4.2.2.3.1. allowing their body to be moved into any alternative shape and will then hold that new pose

4.2.2.4. Clang Associations

4.2.2.4.1. stringing together a series of nonsense words that rhyme

4.2.3. Causes/On Set

4.2.3.1. Dopamine Hypothesis

4.2.3.1.1. a high level of dopamie seems to be associated with schizophrenia

4.2.3.2. average age of onset is 18-25...the first few years of college

4.2.3.3. Same amount of males and females are diagnosed

4.2.3.4. more women have bipolar disorders

4.2.3.5. Is hereditary

4.2.3.6. Being raised Double Bind

5. Depressive Disorders

5.1. Mood/Affective Disorder

5.1.1. Experiences extreme or inappropriate emotions

5.2. Major Depressive Disorder

5.2.1. Symptoms

5.2.1.1. the length of the depressive episode (+2 weeks without clear reason)

5.2.1.2. loss of appetite

5.2.1.3. fatigue

5.2.1.4. change in sleeping patterns

5.2.1.5. lack of interest in normally enjoyable activities

5.2.1.6. feelings of worthlessness

5.3. SAD (seasonal affective disorder)

5.3.1. experiencing depression but only during certain times of the year, usually wunder, when there is less sunlight.

5.3.2. Treated often with light therapy

5.4. Etiology

5.4.1. Psychoanalysts

5.4.1.1. view depression as the product of anger directed inward, loss during the early psychosexual stages, or an overly punitive supereo

5.4.2. Learning Theorists

5.4.2.1. view the mood disorder as bringing about some kind of reinforcement such as attention or sympathy

5.4.3. People: Aaron Beck

5.4.3.1. Cognitive Triad

5.4.3.1.1. belief that depression results from unreasonably negative ideas that people have about themselves, their world, and their futures

5.4.4. Biological

5.4.4.1. low levels of serotonin

5.4.4.2. low levels of neuropinephrine

5.5. Martin Seligman

5.5.1. learned helplessness

5.5.1.1. when one's prior experiences have caused that person to view him/herself as unable to control aspects of the future that are uncontrollable

5.5.2. dog experiment: shock with/out escape vs. later being able to escape

5.5.2.1. due to lack of ability to control their fate in the first place of the first phase of these experiment, these gods had learned to act helpless.

6. Specific phobia

6.1. symptoms

6.2. Types

6.2.1. Claustrophobia

6.2.1.1. fear of enclosed spaces

6.2.2. arachnophobia

6.2.2.1. fear of spiders

6.2.3. agoraphobia

6.2.3.1. fear of open, public spaces

6.2.3.1.1. extreme cases are afraid to venture outside of their homes at all

6.3. Treatment

6.4. Etiology

6.5. Phobias are from learned behavior

7. Treatments

8. Etiology (causes)

8.1. Perspectives

8.1.1. Psychoanalytic/psychodynamic

8.1.1.1. Internal, unconscious conflicts

8.1.2. Humanistic

8.1.2.1. failure to strive towards one's potential or being out of touch with one's feelings

8.1.3. Behavioral

8.1.3.1. Reinforcement history, the environment

8.1.4. Cognitive

8.1.4.1. Irrational, dysfunctional thoughts or ways of thinking

8.1.5. Sociocultural

8.1.5.1. dysfunctional society

8.1.6. Biomedical

8.1.6.1. organix problems, biochemical imbalances, genetic predispositions

9. Definition

9.1. Disturbing to the individual

9.1.1. maladaptive, harmful to the person

9.2. disturbing to others

9.2.1. other people think that it is weird

9.3. unusual

9.3.1. not shared by many members of the population

9.4. irrational

9.4.1. doesn't make any sense to the average person

10. Personality Disorders

10.1. Narcissistic Personality Disorder

10.1.1. Thinks that they are the center of the universe

10.2. Anti-Social Personality Disorder

10.2.1. little regards for people's feelings. View the world as a hostile place where they need to look out for themselves. Common in criminals

10.2.2. More Common in Men

10.3. Dependent Personality Disorder

10.3.1. Rely too much on the attention and help of others

10.4. Paranoid Personality Disorder

10.4.1. Always feel as if they're being persecuted by others

10.5. Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder

10.5.1. Overly concerned with certain thoughts and performing certain behaviors. But they aren't debilitated to the same extent that someone with OCD would

10.6. Histrionic Personality Disorder

10.6.1. Connotes overly dramatic behavior

11. Others

11.1. Paraphilias/Psychosexual Disorders

11.1.1. Masochist

11.1.1.1. aroused by having pain inflicted upon themselves

11.1.2. Sadist

11.1.2.1. aroused by inflicting pain on someone else

11.1.3. Fetishism

11.1.3.1. attraction to objects

11.1.4. Zoophilia

11.1.4.1. attraction to animals

11.1.5. Voyeur

11.1.5.1. watching others engage in some kind of sexual behavior

11.1.6. Pedophilia

11.1.6.1. attraction to children

11.2. Eating Disorders

11.2.1. Anorexia Nervosa

11.2.1.1. significantly low wight for one's age and size

11.2.1.2. intense fear of food and fat

11.2.1.3. distorted body image

11.2.2. Bulimia

11.2.2.1. fear of food

11.2.2.2. cycles of eating large amounts of food, then purging

11.3. Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders

11.3.1. when the use of such substances of behaviors like gambling regularly negatively affects a person's life

11.4. Autism Spectrum Disorder

11.4.1. seek out less social and emotional contact than other children. hypersensitive to sensory stimulation

11.5. ADHD