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2010 CHEM31L Group Concept Map #1 by Mind Map: 2010 CHEM31L Group Concept Map
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2010 CHEM31L Group Concept Map #1

Ionization energy

Thermodynamics

3 Laws of Thermodynamics

Energy of the universe is constant, delta E = q+w

For any spontaneous process, entropy of univ increases

Entropy of a perfect crystal at 0K is 0

Chemical Energy

Endothermic, delta H>0, q= x, delta E>0, bonds of product weaker

Exothermic, delta H<0, q= -x, delta E>0, bonds of product stronger

Spontaneity

all spontaneous processes involve an increase in the entropy of the universe

spontaneous processes also involve a decrease in free energy

temperature dependent

Quantum Mechanics

Quantum Numbers

Principal (n): size/energy of the orbital

Angular Momentum (l): angular momentum of an electron

Magnetic (ml): orientation in space of the angular momentum

Spin (ms): direction of the electron's spin

Particle in a box

as the length of box increases, the spacings between energy levels decrease

Schrodinger's Equation

Bonding

Exceptions to the Octet Rule

Electronegativity

ability of a molecule to attract shared electrons

Dipole Moment

Bond strength

Models

localized electron (LE), Lewis structures predict valence electrons, Valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) predicts the geometry of the molecule, In reality, however, electrons are delocalized, Resonance

molecular orbital (MO), Helps to explain things such as Resonance and the paramagnetism of some molecules (like O2) that the LE model can't explain

Bonding occurs because systems seek the lowest possible energies

Atoms achieve noble gas configurations

Kinetics

tells us about the rate of a reaction and ultimately about the reaction mechanism

Differential rate law

Integrated Rate Law

Collision model:molecules must collide to react

Correct orientation

colliding molecules must have enough energy to overcome activation energy

Catalysis: helps speed up reaction

Homogeneous catalysis

Heterogeneous catalysis

Equilibrium

equilibrium represents the state at which the free energy of a system is lowest; at equilibrium delta G is 0.

Equilibrium constant K is dependent on temperature

Acids and Bases

Acid: a proton donor; electron pair acceptor

Strong acids have large K values; strong acid has a weak conjugate base

Base: a proton acceptor; electron pair donor; may supply hydroxide anions

Atomic Theory

Pauli Exclusion Principle

Aufbau Principle

Hund's Rule

Periodic Table

Mendeleev

Predicts several trends, Electron affinity, Atomic Radius