2010 CHEM31L Group Concept Map #1

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2010 CHEM31L Group Concept Map #1 by Mind Map: 2010 CHEM31L Group Concept Map #1

1. Ionization energy

2. Thermodynamics

2.1. 3 Laws of Thermodynamics

2.1.1. Energy of the universe is constant delta E = q+w

2.1.2. For any spontaneous process, entropy of univ increases

2.1.3. Entropy of a perfect crystal at 0K is 0

2.2. Chemical Energy

2.2.1. Endothermic delta H>0 q= x delta E>0 bonds of product weaker

2.2.2. Exothermic delta H<0 q= -x delta E>0 bonds of product stronger

2.3. Spontaneity

2.3.1. all spontaneous processes involve an increase in the entropy of the universe

2.3.2. spontaneous processes also involve a decrease in free energy

2.3.3. temperature dependent

3. Quantum Mechanics

3.1. Quantum Numbers

3.1.1. Principal (n): size/energy of the orbital

3.1.2. Angular Momentum (l): angular momentum of an electron

3.1.3. Magnetic (ml): orientation in space of the angular momentum

3.1.4. Spin (ms): direction of the electron's spin

3.2. Particle in a box

3.2.1. as the length of box increases, the spacings between energy levels decrease

3.3. Schrodinger's Equation

4. Bonding

4.1. Exceptions to the Octet Rule

4.2. Electronegativity

4.2.1. ability of a molecule to attract shared electrons

4.3. Dipole Moment

4.4. Bond strength

4.5. Models

4.5.1. localized electron (LE) Lewis structures predict valence electrons Valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) predicts the geometry of the molecule In reality, however, electrons are delocalized Resonance

4.5.2. molecular orbital (MO) Helps to explain things such as Resonance and the paramagnetism of some molecules (like O2) that the LE model can't explain

4.6. Bonding occurs because systems seek the lowest possible energies

4.6.1. Atoms achieve noble gas configurations

5. Kinetics

5.1. tells us about the rate of a reaction and ultimately about the reaction mechanism

5.1.1. Differential rate law

5.1.2. Integrated Rate Law

5.2. Collision model:molecules must collide to react

5.2.1. Correct orientation

5.2.2. colliding molecules must have enough energy to overcome activation energy

5.3. Catalysis: helps speed up reaction

5.3.1. Homogeneous catalysis

5.3.2. Heterogeneous catalysis

6. Equilibrium

6.1. equilibrium represents the state at which the free energy of a system is lowest; at equilibrium delta G is 0.

6.2. Equilibrium constant K is dependent on temperature

7. Acids and Bases

7.1. Acid: a proton donor; electron pair acceptor

7.1.1. Strong acids have large K values; strong acid has a weak conjugate base

7.2. Base: a proton acceptor; electron pair donor; may supply hydroxide anions

8. Atomic Theory

8.1. Pauli Exclusion Principle

8.2. Aufbau Principle

8.3. Hund's Rule

8.4. Periodic Table

8.4.1. Mendeleev

8.4.2. Predicts several trends Electron affinity Atomic Radius