Topic 1 - Lifestyle, Health and Risk

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Topic 1 - Lifestyle, Health and Risk by Mind Map: Topic 1 - Lifestyle, Health and Risk

1. High salt intake

2. HBP

3. Platelet inhibitory

3.1. asprin

3.1.1. reduces size of plug in the blood

3.1.1.1. prevents blood thickening

3.1.2. gastrointestial bleeding allergic reaction

4. Reducing the risk factors of CVD

4.1. Anti hypertensives

4.1.1. ACE inhibitors

4.1.1.1. Angiotensin 1 to angiotensin 2

4.1.1.1.1. Vasoconstriction of blood vessels

4.1.1.1.2. Dry mouth abnormal HR papitations kidney function

4.1.2. Calcium Channel blockers

4.1.2.1. Block calcium channels

4.1.2.2. dizziness swollen ankles constipation

4.1.3. Diurectics

4.1.3.1. Vol of urine

4.1.3.2. nausea dizziness muscle cramps

4.2. Statins

4.2.1. HMG-CoA Reductase

4.2.1.1. reduce stroke and heart disease

4.2.1.2. gastrointestial cancer muscle pain respiratory cancer

4.3. Anticoagulants

4.3.1. warfarin

4.3.1.1. prevents vitamin K forming

4.3.1.2. risk of bleeding blurred vision

5. What is cardiovascular disease?

5.1. Circulatory system

5.1.1. Open

5.1.2. Closed

5.1.3. Double

5.1.4. Single

5.2. Blood vessels

5.2.1. Veins

5.2.1.1. Valves present

5.2.1.2. Wide lumen

5.2.1.3. Thin walls

5.2.1.4. collagen, smooth muscles, elastic fibres

5.2.2. Arteries

5.2.2.1. Narrow lumen

5.2.2.2. No valves

5.2.2.3. thick walls

5.2.2.4. collagen, smooth muscles elastic fibres

5.2.3. Capillaries

5.2.3.1. join arterioles and venules together

5.2.3.2. small (one cell thick)

5.3. Ideal transport medium

5.3.1. Solvent properties

5.3.2. Thermal properties (SHC)

5.3.3. Water

5.4. Cardiac cycle

5.4.1. Atrial systole

5.4.2. Ventricular systole

5.4.3. Diastole

5.5. Atherosclerosis

5.5.1. Blood clotting cascade

5.5.1.1. Thromboplastin , calcium ion and vitamin K

5.5.1.2. Prothrombin to Thrombin

5.5.1.3. Fibrinogen to Fibrin

5.5.2. Coronary heart disease and stroke

6. Who is at risk of CVD?

6.1. Probability of occurrence of some unwanted event or outcome

6.2. Factors

6.2.1. involuntary not natural unfamiliar dreaded unfair very small

6.3. Perception of risk

6.3.1. people overestimate risk if they think its immediate

6.4. Correlation and causation

6.5. Null hypothesis

6.5.1. No difference between results expected

7. Risk factors for CVD

7.1. Epidemiological studies

7.1.1. Case-controlled

7.1.1.1. Case with condition

7.1.1.2. Case without condition

7.1.1.2.1. Take histories of exposure to risk factor

7.1.2. Cohort (done over long time)

7.1.2.1. Population of people

7.1.2.1.1. Group with condition

7.1.2.1.2. Group without condition

7.1.2.2. Population of people with and without condition

7.1.2.2.1. group with condition

7.1.2.2.2. group without condition

7.1.3. Features of good study

7.1.3.1. Clear aim

7.1.3.2. Valid and reliable results

7.1.3.2.1. standardized method

7.1.3.2.2. controlled variables

7.1.3.3. Representative sample

7.1.3.3.1. large sample size

8. Risk factors of CVD

8.1. Energy balance

8.1.1. EAR

8.1.2. LRNI HRNI

8.1.3. BMR

8.1.3.1. balanced

8.1.3.2. positive energy balance

8.1.3.3. negative energy balance

8.1.4. BMI

8.1.4.1. body mass/height

8.1.5. Waist to hip ratio

8.1.5.1. circumference of waist / circumference of hips

8.2. Diet

8.2.1. Carbohydrates

8.2.1.1. Monosaccharide

8.2.1.1.1. glucose fructose galactose

8.2.1.2. Disaccharide

8.2.1.2.1. glycosidic bond by condensation reaction

8.2.1.2.2. hydrolysis

8.2.1.3. Polysaccharide

8.2.1.3.1. plants

8.2.1.3.2. animals

8.2.2. lipids

8.2.2.1. triglycerides

8.2.2.1.1. 3 fatty acids and 1 glycerol molecule

8.2.2.2. fats

8.2.2.2.1. saturated fats

8.2.2.2.2. unsaturated fats

8.2.3. cholesterol

8.2.3.1. serum cholesterol

8.2.3.2. insoluble lipoproteins

8.2.3.2.1. LDL

8.2.3.2.2. HDL

8.3. High blood pressure

8.3.1. Hydrostatic force

8.3.2. Hypertension

8.3.2.1. atherosclerosis

8.3.3. Sphygomomsnometer

8.3.3.1. systolic (contracts) diastolic (relaxed)

8.3.3.2. 140/80

8.3.4. what causes BP

8.3.4.1. friction

8.3.4.2. smooth muscle contracts

8.3.4.3. loss of elasticity

8.3.4.4. adrenaline

8.3.5. Oedema

8.4. Other factors

8.4.1. Smoking

8.4.1.1. nicotine

8.4.1.2. hemoglobin in RBC

8.4.1.3. other chemical

8.4.1.4. reduction in HDL

8.4.2. inactivity

8.4.2.1. exercise

8.4.2.1.1. type II diabetes

8.4.3. genes

8.4.3.1. inherit defective allele

8.4.3.2. increase individual susceptibility to the disease

8.4.3.3. Apolioprotein

8.4.3.3.1. APOA

8.4.3.3.2. APOB

8.4.3.3.3. APOE

8.4.4. Salt

8.4.4.1. kidneys to retain water

8.4.5. Stress

8.4.5.1. HBP

8.4.6. Alcohol

8.4.6.1. excess drinking

8.4.6.1.1. tissue damage

8.4.6.1.2. liver function