Topic 1 - Lifestyle, Health and Risk

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Topic 1 - Lifestyle, Health and Risk by Mind Map: Topic 1 - Lifestyle, Health and Risk

1. High salt intake

2. HBP

3. Platelet inhibitory

3.1. asprin

3.1.1. reduces size of plug in the blood prevents blood thickening

3.1.2. gastrointestial bleeding allergic reaction

4. Reducing the risk factors of CVD

4.1. Anti hypertensives

4.1.1. ACE inhibitors Angiotensin 1 to angiotensin 2 Vasoconstriction of blood vessels Dry mouth abnormal HR papitations kidney function

4.1.2. Calcium Channel blockers Block calcium channels dizziness swollen ankles constipation

4.1.3. Diurectics Vol of urine nausea dizziness muscle cramps

4.2. Statins

4.2.1. HMG-CoA Reductase reduce stroke and heart disease gastrointestial cancer muscle pain respiratory cancer

4.3. Anticoagulants

4.3.1. warfarin prevents vitamin K forming risk of bleeding blurred vision

5. What is cardiovascular disease?

5.1. Circulatory system

5.1.1. Open

5.1.2. Closed

5.1.3. Double

5.1.4. Single

5.2. Blood vessels

5.2.1. Veins Valves present Wide lumen Thin walls collagen, smooth muscles, elastic fibres

5.2.2. Arteries Narrow lumen No valves thick walls collagen, smooth muscles elastic fibres

5.2.3. Capillaries join arterioles and venules together small (one cell thick)

5.3. Ideal transport medium

5.3.1. Solvent properties

5.3.2. Thermal properties (SHC)

5.3.3. Water

5.4. Cardiac cycle

5.4.1. Atrial systole

5.4.2. Ventricular systole

5.4.3. Diastole

5.5. Atherosclerosis

5.5.1. Blood clotting cascade Thromboplastin , calcium ion and vitamin K Prothrombin to Thrombin Fibrinogen to Fibrin

5.5.2. Coronary heart disease and stroke

6. Who is at risk of CVD?

6.1. Probability of occurrence of some unwanted event or outcome

6.2. Factors

6.2.1. involuntary not natural unfamiliar dreaded unfair very small

6.3. Perception of risk

6.3.1. people overestimate risk if they think its immediate

6.4. Correlation and causation

6.5. Null hypothesis

6.5.1. No difference between results expected

7. Risk factors for CVD

7.1. Epidemiological studies

7.1.1. Case-controlled Case with condition Case without condition Take histories of exposure to risk factor

7.1.2. Cohort (done over long time) Population of people Group with condition Group without condition Population of people with and without condition group with condition group without condition

7.1.3. Features of good study Clear aim Valid and reliable results standardized method controlled variables Representative sample large sample size

8. Risk factors of CVD

8.1. Energy balance

8.1.1. EAR

8.1.2. LRNI HRNI

8.1.3. BMR balanced positive energy balance negative energy balance

8.1.4. BMI body mass/height

8.1.5. Waist to hip ratio circumference of waist / circumference of hips

8.2. Diet

8.2.1. Carbohydrates Monosaccharide glucose fructose galactose Disaccharide glycosidic bond by condensation reaction hydrolysis Polysaccharide plants animals

8.2.2. lipids triglycerides 3 fatty acids and 1 glycerol molecule fats saturated fats unsaturated fats

8.2.3. cholesterol serum cholesterol insoluble lipoproteins LDL HDL

8.3. High blood pressure

8.3.1. Hydrostatic force

8.3.2. Hypertension atherosclerosis

8.3.3. Sphygomomsnometer systolic (contracts) diastolic (relaxed) 140/80

8.3.4. what causes BP friction smooth muscle contracts loss of elasticity adrenaline

8.3.5. Oedema

8.4. Other factors

8.4.1. Smoking nicotine hemoglobin in RBC other chemical reduction in HDL

8.4.2. inactivity exercise type II diabetes

8.4.3. genes inherit defective allele increase individual susceptibility to the disease Apolioprotein APOA APOB APOE

8.4.4. Salt kidneys to retain water

8.4.5. Stress HBP

8.4.6. Alcohol excess drinking tissue damage liver function