Diversity in Graphic Design Education/History/Hiring

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Diversity in Graphic Design Education/History/Hiring by Mind Map: Diversity in Graphic Design Education/History/Hiring

1. Specifically in Graphic Design

1.1. Approximately 86% of professional designers are Caucasian. This represents only small strides since the 1990 AIGA Journal article “Equal Opportunities: Minorities in Graphic Design” (by Michele Vernon-Chesley) and subsequent symposium “Why Is Graphic Design 93% White?” And race is only part of the picture. Diversity in design means diversity of experience, perspective and creativity—otherwise known as diversity of thought—and these can be shaped by multiple factors including race, ethnicity, gender, age, sexual identity, ability/disability and location, among others. The diversity problem in design is not only in the numbers, but also in the lack of diverse role models, opportunities, and public awareness—which leads to apathy, insensitivity and even outright discrimination. (http://www.aiga.org/diversity-and-inclusion-in-design-why-do-they-matter/)

1.2. Articles on "Why are there no black designers" on AIGA

1.3. Speculation:

1.3.1. minorities don't see themselves as adequate for design because examples of designers are rarely minorities

1.3.2. People tend to hire those similar to themselves

1.3.2.1. See work of Rivera

1.3.3. Peaople tend to like the work of people who are similar to themselves

2. Special Interest Groups/Classes

2.1. Idea 1

2.2. Idea 2

2.3. Idea 3

3. In Curriculum

3.1. Meggs' History of graphic Design

3.1.1. Top book used in curriculum according to Open Syllabus project

3.1.1.1. Look up diversity included in the book to see what's being taught in the classroom

4. In History Books

4.1. “There is tendency within design history to glaze over important accomplishments and accolades by women. If anything, we can say there has been false nostalgia as to the honest history of what happened. The commentary of these times is scattered in hard to access publications and with this, our research questions the cultural and academic recognition written in history books in current circulation.” - Berenson and Honeth

4.2. People tend to argue that what’s found in a history book is fact simply because that’s where it’s found, although Attfield argues you could use the same argument to claim that the world is flat.

4.3. Historical vs. Transhistorical phenomenon, (Judith Attfield)

4.3.1. "Crude assumptions of binary opposites" rather than relationship between male and female.

4.4. Gender and the Politics of History by Joan Wallach Scott (book researching women history has previously been defined by those in power)

5. In Technology

5.1. Design and Feminism, by Joan Rothschild, argues that the gendering of technology has perpetuated this idea that women aren't involved or aren't "developers"

6. Marxist Theory

6.1. Marxist Feminism argues that women in capitalist economy are often uncompensated for their labor (Ferguson, A. & Hennessy, R. (2010). Feminist Perspectives on Class and Work. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.)

6.2. Marxist ideas promote that those power seek to disorganize working class to maintain their place in power. Marxist theory also promotes that an organized vanguard party has the power to overthrow the leading power class (Lenin, V. (1917). The State and Revolution: The Marxist Theory of the State & The Tasks of the Proletariat in the Revolution.)

6.2.1. This goes in line with what Anne Swartz said about how people tend to look to hire those like themselves, white people tend to hire white people, males tend to hire males, etc.

6.2.1.1. Look to work of Rivera

7. Hiring Similar to Self

7.1. "Hiring is more than just a process of skills sorting," writes Rivera. "It is also a process of cultural matching between candidates, evaluators, and firms. Employers sought candidates who were not only competent but culturally similar to themselves." (Baer, Drake. http://www.businessinsider.com/managers-hire-people-who-remind-them-of-themselves-2014-5)

7.2. "Cultural Matching" Lauren A. Rivera

7.3. "organizational, cognitive, and affective processes reinforced one another to create new hire classes that mirrored firms’ existing employees in cultural signals and lifestyle markers" Rivera

8. Empathy

8.1. Empathy is a major focus of graphic design. If there is a lack of diversity within the leadership and workforce, how is design being truly empathetic to clients and audiences?

8.2. Is empathy really possible when it's scientifically shown to be difficult to look past personal biases?

8.2.1. Our workforce would benefit from a more diverse population, since the general population itself is becoming more diverse

8.3. Study on the brain shows that we relate stronger to people we know than strangers

8.3.1. If we don't "know" other more diverse designers, how can we relate to a diverse audience?