A Farewell to Arms Three

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A Farewell to Arms Three by Mind Map: A Farewell to Arms Three

1. The Novel

1.1. Context

1.1.1. Hemingway was a ambulance driver during WW1. The story is his experiences overseas in Italy along with his relationship with his first wife Agnes.

1.1.1.1. Since this book is based off of Hemingway's experiences during the war, the book includes a level of realism about the harsh reality of war that are rarely found in other novels. Because of this, the book manages to explain what war is actually like, rather than either romanticizing the war or completely condemning it.

1.1.1.1.1. That

1.1.1.2. That Hemingway experienced war and shell shock from the horrors that he faced is one of the reasons as to why all the characters face a realistic portrayal of PTSD.

1.1.1.2.1. Connects to duty and obligation blurbs

1.1.2. Throughout the book, there are multiple references to Rome. This nationalistic mentality was inspired by Mussolini and his promise to restore Italy to its former glory as a child of Rome.

1.1.2.1. That this is never explicitly explained or referenced, it is instead an interesting aside that helps expound the reactions of the characters in the war and their motives for being there.

1.2. Notable Scenes

1.2.1. Quotes I liked

1.2.1.1. "...bulged forward under the capes so that the men, passing on the road, marched as though they were six months gone with child."

1.2.1.1.1. The metaphor used in this line was very interesting. Usually writers don't compare soldiers to mothers; since Hemingway did, he sets the rest of the mood for the book. By using a new comparison, this implies that the book will focus on a new perspective on the issue of war. The deliberate prose and perverse references towards something often thought of as compassionate makes the excerpt powerful.

1.2.1.2. "Only being sent away from you [worries me]. You're my religion. You're all I've got"

1.2.1.2.1. This describes the evolution of the relationship between Catherine and Henry in contrast to the beginning. The characters are no longer using the relationship as a game or distraction but are invested in its success. The short, fragmented sentences and use of punctuation is notable; its use creates emphasis on the emotion behind the words and the desperation that Catherine would have said it with.

1.2.1.2.2. The use of religion is also striking. Catherine was religious and the emphasis on her changing her faith only re-enforces the change in her relationship.

1.2.2. Important scenes

1.2.2.1. "Poor, poor dear Cat. And this was the price you paid for sleeping together. This was the end of the trap. This was what people got for loving each other. Thank God for gas, anyway. What must it have been like before there were anesthetics?"

1.2.2.1.1. Unlike his character earlier, Henry's feeling of loss and impotence is conflicting with his masculinity and the themes that were emphasized dealing with it. The emphasis on the delicate and helpless nature of women throughout the book only exacerbates the helplessness that Henry faces in the face of her death.

1.2.2.1.2. The phrase "thank god for gas, anyway." references back to the escapism that the characters strive for. All the characters try to find a relief from the pain of the war; with characters using sex, alcohol, religion or love as an anesthetic of sorts to dull the pain. Only at the end of this novel do we realize the futility of this, the only character that escaped the pain was Catherine through her death.

1.2.2.1.3. The poignant use of words and the lamination towards god makes the emotions portrayed by Henry much more visceral, and Catherine's death more meaningful.

1.2.2.2. Catherine gives Henry an amulet of Saint Antony and he looses it.

1.2.2.2.1. This is foreshadowing of the loss he faces.

1.2.2.3. "I had seen nothing sacred, and the things that were glorious had no glory and the sacrifices were like the stockyards at Chicago if nothing was done with the meat except to bury it. There were many words that you could not stand to hear and finally only the names of places had dignity. Certain numbers were the same way and certain dates and these with the names of the places were all you could say and have them mean anything. Abstract words such as glory, honor, courage, or hallow were obscene beside the concrete names of villages, the numbers of roads, the names of rivers, the numbers of regiments and the dates"

1.2.2.3.1. The quote is used to compare Henry's duty to the war to the fanaticism that others have had for it. Henry's duty is less to Italy and more to the ideal he wants to uphold.

1.2.2.3.2. The quote then further explains that war needs to be less about glory and honor and instead about who is effected. That the pointless ideas used to romanticize war only encourage its proliferation.

1.3. Literary Elements

1.3.1. Writing style

1.3.1.1. Hemingway's writing has a notable style. Using tight prose and simple sentences he manages to convey meaning and emotion through the dialog, action and inaction of characters rather than having them explicitly stated.

1.3.1.1.1. This style evolved because Hemingway originally wrote short stories.

1.3.1.1.2. This style of writing adds emphasis to the words chosen and the emotion portrayed, allowing for more detail to be shared in less time. Thus, the conversations between Henry and Catherine are more meaningful and help expose the personality and emotions of Henry while still staying accurate to his character.

1.3.1.2. The language used hints at the tragedy that he will eventually face. By using mournful, repetitive prose, the novel resembles an elegy; thus making the entire novel foreshadow the death of Catherine.

1.3.2. Themes and Motifs

1.3.2.1. Rain

1.3.2.1.1. "Because sometimes I see me dead in it...and sometimes I see you dead in it... I can keep you safe... but no one can help themselves [in reference to Catherine's fear of rain]"

1.3.2.2. Grim realities of war

1.3.2.2.1. Throughout the novel, the characters we meet are forced to face the grim realities of war. Each is forced to deal with this adversity in their own ways with various degrees of success.

1.3.2.3. Love and pain

1.3.2.4. Masculinity

1.3.2.4.1. See "reactions to adversity: the need to prove oneself" blurb

1.3.2.5. Duty and obligations

1.3.2.5.1. Ethics

1.3.2.5.2. Look at Duty and obligations section

1.4. Characters

1.4.1. Rinaldi

1.4.1.1. Sexuality and virility

1.4.1.1.1. Rinaldi prides himself on his virility and spends most of the book re-enforcing his image as a sexual figure.

1.4.2. Henry

1.4.2.1. Hypermasculine

1.4.2.1.1. Henry does not show emotions, and if he does he will not admit them. He demonstrates the exaggeration of key attributes such as virility, strength and aggression.

1.4.2.2. Man of Duty

1.4.2.2.1. All of Henry's actions are related to his sense of duty.

1.4.3. Catherine Barkley

1.4.3.1. Catherine's devoted to Henry.

1.4.3.1.1. Rather than devoting herself to her duties and obligations, Catherine instead devotes herself to her lover and his well-being.

1.4.3.1.2. Her loyalty is towards her family rather than to her job or country. While she was religious, it was used as a coping method rather than any true loyalty to the ideas that it brought forth; after she starts using her relationship with Henry as a form of coping, she is willing to give up her faith in a higher power.

1.4.3.2. Despite Catherine's insecurity and submissiveness, she demonstrates a dynamic personality. She dictates her actions, only compromising when she decides to; she chooses when she feels her "game" with Henry is over, and tells him to stop rather than just doing whatever he wants to do.

1.4.3.2.1. Again, it needs to be reiterated that submissiveness does not equate to weakness. By making the choices that Catherine does, she does not make herself lesser than the men in A Farewell to Arms, or the females in other novels. The choice to make decisions is an important one and that society still demands the removal of that choice to prove ones worth is nothing short of barbaric.