Defending North America

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Defending North America by Mind Map: Defending North America

1. 'Canada's Acceptance of Nuclear Weapons in 1963'

1.1. For

1.1.1. Established a united front with USA not only with NORAD , but with any actions considered to be Anti-American would've been costly to international relations and trade

1.1.2. They created a sense of security for many Canadians, knowing that we had some sort of defence against the Soviet attacks

1.1.3. Arrow project was too expensive and ineffective at meeting Canada's security needs. Bomarc missiles were a more reasonable route, but would be ineffectual without the use of nuclear heads.

1.1.4. American Bomarc missiles would've been placed at missile sites along the Canadian border, which would've downed any incoming Soviet bombers over vulnerable civilian areas.

1.2. Against

1.2.1. Many feared that this would result in contributing global suicide

1.2.2. Foreign Affairs Minister Howard Green felt that to accept nuclear weapons in Canada was hypocritical and against foreign policy

1.2.3. Diefenbaker's Cabinet was very divided on the issue and spread an image that the Conservatives lacked solidarity

1.2.4. People felt that giving up on the Arrow project, they were effectively destroying Canadian innovation for the sake of convenience and supporting American industry.

2. 'The Scrapping of the Avro Arrow'

2.1. For

2.1.1. It was the most advanced aircraft in the world at the time

2.1.2. Opportunity to establish Canada as a technological leader of the world

2.1.3. It would've been Canada's primary interceptor, protecting it from Soviet invasion

2.2. Against

2.2.1. The cost of producing it was six times more expensive as that of it's American counterpart

2.2.2. It was believed that the Americans envied the quality of the Avro Arrow and thus thought that Canada shouldn't commission it

2.2.3. There were no foreign orders

2.2.4. The company that produced the Avro Arrow was a disorganized company

3. 'Canada's Role in the Cuban Missile Crisis'

3.1. For

3.1.1. American expected help from Canada, their NORAD ally, during the Cuban Missile Crisis

3.1.2. Helping the Americans would improve relations and refusing to help them would damage relations

3.1.3. The Americans were in danger of being attacked by nuclear missiles

3.2. Against

3.2.1. The government of John Diefenbaker wanted to take a stand in directing foreign policy and not simply bowing to the US

3.2.2. Evidence that nuclear missile launch sites in Cuba may have been biased as it was the Americans themselves who conducted the investigation

3.2.3. It was a major conflict that seemed largely rooted in US policy and interest

3.2.4. Diefenbaker believed he was protecting Canadian interest and independence