My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Philosophy of Education

1.1. The Philosophy of Education that I best align with is Pragmatism.

1.1.1. Generic Notion- John Dewey's ideas were  developed by the influence  theory of evolution and the belief in progress. He believed in a better society through education. School was an "embryonic community" children would learn through the book and experiments. Students work with one another in a democratic society. Dewey's education ideas were progressive, students take part in the planning of their education.  Learning his highly depended on experiential learning. Teachers starts with the interests and needs of their students. Key Researchers and founders of the Pragmatism school of thought are George Sanders Peirce (1839-1914), William James (1842-1910), and John Dewey (1859- 1952). Other European philosophers who can be classified as pragmatists are, Frances Bacon (1561- 1626), John Locke (1632- 1704), and Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712- 1778). Goal of Education-  Growth is the primary role of education. School is a place where ideas can be implemented and reconstructed to provide students knowledge to improve social order.  Dewey's view was to not only integrate children into a democratic society. He believed that schools need to instill cooperative vales in all students so they would prepare for a  transform social order to a more democratic one.

2. Schools as Organizations

2.1. Major stakeholders in my district (DeKalb County, Alabama).

2.1.1. State Senators: Steve Livingston- Senate District 8 House of Representatives: Nathaniel Ledbetter-House District 24 State Superintendent- Dr. Philip Cleveland, serves as Interim State Superintendent of Education.                                                   State School Board: Governor Robert J. Bentlely-President, Jeff Newman-Vice President, Dr. Yvette Richardson-President Pro Tem., Matthew S. Brown, Betty Peters, Stephanie Bell, Ella B. Bell, Cynthia Sanders McCarty, and Mary Scott Hunter.

3. Curriculum and Pedagogy

3.1. The historical curriculum theory that I would advocate is the developmentalist curriculum.

3.1.1. According to our textbook this is a student centered approach. It is relating the curriculum to the needs and interest of each child at particular developmental stage. The developmentalist curriculum relates school to life experiences  of each child in a way that makes education come alive in a meaningful manner. The teacher is not a transmitter of knowledge instead the teacher is a facilitator of the student growth.

4. Equality of Opportunity

4.1. Educational achievement and attainment for Hispanic-American students is much lower compared to whites.  According to our textbook on p. 344, minority educational achievement gap is in relation to parental level of education.

4.1.1. According to research only 62.7 percent of Hispanic-Americans graduated from high school and 33.3 percent received a bachelor's degree; compared to 92.1 percent of whites graduating high school and 33.3 percent receiving a bachelor's degree. 'The Digest of Educational Statistics' indicates that white students outperform all other students, except for some Asian- American students. "Despite educational improvements by minority students Hispanic-American students still lag behind white students in educational achievement attainment" (Sadovnik, Cookson, & Semel, 2013). The higher level of education the higher reading proficiency. Many of Hispanic-American parents' level of reading is not proficient this correlates to the child's reading proficiency as well. Low-income and minority students are less likely to be in advanced classes, and exposed to more challenging school work (curriculum). Hispanic-American parents are less likely to participate in school activities in comparison to whites. Many times this may be a result of the language barrier. Hispanic parents may not feel as comfortable as a Caucasian parent participating in school activities.

5. Educational Inequality

5.1. According to our textbook, social class background has the most powerful effect on educational achievement and attainment. Functionalists believe that unequal educational outcomes are the result, of unequal educational opportunities. Conflict theorists, are concerned with both equality of opportunity and results. Interactionist believe that, one must also look into the lives and worlds of families and schools in order to understand why it happens (Sadovnik, Cookson, & Semel, 2013).

5.1.1. Cultural depravation theorists, say that based on educational research students go to school without the requisite intellectual and social skills needed for school success. Students are not prepared for school at home. Programs like Head Start, try to help parents become more involved in their children's schooling and help with literacy skills necessary for their children's academic development. According to our book, cultural difference theorists attribute cultural differences to social forces such as poverty, racism, discrimination, and unequal life chances. Cultural differences affect educational inequality. Middle-class students are exposed to different educational places such as museums, and traveling. Working-class families use natural ways to encourage children to be independent and play on their own. However poverty-related health problems can have major effects on the students academic achievement as well. Children who are exposed to lead paint, smoking, alcohol, or drugs can have a lower IQ and limited cognitive development. "The poor should not be blamed for their problems, as the causes of poverty are more social and economic than they are cultural" (Sadovnik, Cookson, & Semel, 2013). Effective School Research suggest that there are school-centered processes that help explain unequal educational achievement by different groups of students.

6. Politics of Education

6.1. I choose the Liberal Perspective, I can identify with most of it's beliefs. I belief in fair treatment and equality for every human being. I also belief that we all deserve a change and fair schooling/education regardless of your socioeconomic background.

6.1.1. According to our text book, "Exploring Education," Liberals belief that indivdual effort alone is sometimes not enough and that the government must intercede on behalf of those in need. The role of government is to ensure the fair tratment of all citizens, to make sure that the equality of opportunity exist for everyone. Groups rather than individuals are affected by the structure of society; therefore solutions must be addressed to groups not to an indivual alone. Liberals belief that the schools role is to provide necessary education to make sure that all students have an equal opportunity to succeed in society. Also socializing students into societal roles, respecting each others cultural diversity to understand and fit into a diverse society.

7. Sociological Perspectives

7.1. My theoretical perspective choice in relationship between school and society is the Functionalist Theory.

7.1.1. I agree with Emile Durkheim's functional point of view; I also belief that moral values are the foundation of society. Functionalism interprets each part of society in terms of how it  contributes to the stability of society as a whole. Each part depends on each other. When one part of the system is not working it's dysfunctional it crates social change and problems. Every part of society has to work together to make it stable. If all parts work together the parts of society will produce,  order, stability, and productivity.

8. History of U.S. Education

8.1. America has had several educational reformers, but I consider that Horace Mann has had the most education influence. The struggle for free public education was led by Horace Mann.

8.1.1. In 1839 the state of Massachusetts created the nation's first normal school, or teacher training school. Mann agruged that common school or free public elementary school would be an equalizer for society. He felt that common school was essential for the stability of society. He began teacher-training, and "normal school." Like Horace Mann, I also think that education should be universal and free to all. I consider that education is a necessity and should be equal for everyone regardless of color, gender, or social class. Horace Mann

9. Educational Reform

9.1. School-to-Work Programs is one School-Based-Reform. The purpose was to provide necessary skills for non-college-bound students to become well prepared and for future successful employment.

9.1.1. This became known as the School-to-work Opportunities Act of 1994, signed on May 4, 1994 by President Bill Clinton. This provided seed money to states and local partnerships of business, labor, government, education, and community organizations to develop school-to-work systems  (Sadovnik, Cookson, & Semel, 2013). Systems were different from state to state but they all had to provide every U.S. student with school based learning, work-based learning (see what skills are required in their work environment), and valued credentials. Teacher Quality-  NCLB requires that all schools have highly qualified teachers in every classroom. This highlighted the problem of unqualified teachers in urban schools. Urban schools especially low income schools have more out-of0field teaching than others.