(SNC2D1) Biology: Tissues, Organs and Systems of Living Things

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(SNC2D1) Biology: Tissues, Organs and Systems of Living Things by Mind Map: (SNC2D1) Biology: Tissues, Organs and Systems of Living Things

1. UNIT 1: Cells -  The Basic Unit of Life

1.1. DEFINITIONS AND CELL FUNCTIONS

1.1.1. ORGANELLE: a smaller part of a cell that has a special function to help maintain the cell's life processes. (i.e. movement, growth, etc.)

1.1.2. VACUOLES & VESICLES: these organelles are used to store nutrients, waste and other substances used by the cell and transport these substances respectfully. In plant cells, the central vacuole stores water for the cell, swelling up and causing the cell to become firm.

1.1.3. THE ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM AND THE GOLGI APPARATUS: The Golgi apparatus modifies, sorts and packages the proteins that are created by the endoplasmic reticulum.

1.1.4. THYLAKOIDS: In the process of photosynthesis, these green cylinders collect energy from the Sun. This energy is then used in photosynthesis to create carbohydrates that the plant uses for growth. One stack of these organelles is known as a granum.

1.2. CELL ORGANELLES

1.2.1. CELL MEMBRANE: layers of lipids that form a protective barrier around the cell and is designed to allow different substances through by processes such as diffusion

1.2.2. CYTOPLASM: the jelly-like substance that fills the cell, surrounding the organelles and suspending them in it. This substance contains nutrients for the cell and it's physical nature allows the movement of the cell's contents

1.2.3. NUCLEUS: the brain of the cell.

1.2.4. MITOCHONDRIA: the powerhouse of the cell that produces the energy that allows the rest of the cell to function.

1.2.5. LYSOSOMES: small organelles that are filled with digestive enzymes (only found in animal cells).

1.2.6. RIBOSOMES: small organelles that are found free-floating or attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum. These organelles are sites where proteins  are assembled.

1.2.7. CYTOSKELETON: the internal framework of fibres made up of protein filaments that help maintain the cells shape.

1.2.8. CHLOROPLASTS: these organelles contain a substance called "chlorophyll" that allows photosynthesis to take place. Within the chloroplast you have thylakoids and stroma. (only found in plant cells and some algae)

1.3. THE SIMILARITIES & DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PLANT AND ANIMAL CELLS

1.3.1. SIMILARITY: Both types of cells have vacuoles, vesicles and share a majority of organelles.

1.3.2. SIMILARITY: Both types of cells store energy.

1.3.3. DIFFERENCE: Animal cells have centrioles, paired structures that are involved in cell division. Plant cells do not have this.

1.3.4. DIFFERENCE: Plant cells have a large central vacuole whereas vacuoles in animal cells tend to be small.

1.4. NOTES ON THE MICROSCOPE

1.4.1. The OCULAR LENS is the eyepiece, the OBJECTIVE LENS is the one closest to the sample.

2. UNIT 2: From Single Cells to Specialized Cells

2.1. CELL DIVISION

2.1.1. CELL CYCLE TERMS

2.1.1.1. CELL CYCLE: The cycle of events in the life of a cell made up of four phases: G1, S, G2 and Mitosis.

2.1.1.2. INTERPHASE: When a cell is preparing for cell division; this is the longest process in the cell cycle where a cell spends about 90% of their lifespan in this phase

2.1.1.2.1. FIRST GROWTH PHASE (G1): a period of growth for the cell where new proteins and organelles are produced

2.1.1.2.2. SYNTHESIS PHASE (S): where the cell synthesizes an entire copy of its DNA; key proteins that are associated with chromosomes are also produced

2.1.1.2.3. SECOND GROWTH PHASE (G2): during this phase, the cell produces the organelles and structures needed for cell division; this is the shortest stage of interphase

2.1.1.3. MITOSIS: The process of cell division that involves the cell splitting itself and its contents in two so that the parent cell forms two daughter cells.

2.1.1.4. CHROMOSOMES: long pieces of coiled DNA and proteins that become visible at the beginning of cell division; only visible during mitosis and is otherwise know as chromatin when spread throughout the cell.

2.1.1.5. SISTER CHROMATIDS: two identical copies of a chromosome; one chromatid goes to each cell during cell division

2.1.1.6. APPOPTOSIS: the regulated death of a cell

2.1.2. THE PHASES OF MITOSIS

2.1.2.1. EARLY PROPHASE: chromatids condense to form chromosomes as the centrioles move towards the poles; spindle fibres are also formed.

2.1.2.2. LATE PROPHASE: the nucleus envelope breaks down and each chromosome is connected to a spindle fibre at its centromere

2.1.2.3. METAPHASE: the chromosomes line up at the centre of the cell

2.1.2.4. ANAPHASE: the sister chromatids separate into individual chromosomes and move to opposite poles.

2.1.2.5. TELOPHASE AND CYTOKINESIS: the mitotic spindle breaks down and two new nuclei form; the chromosomes lose their distinct shape as the cell pinches in half to form two new daughter cells.

2.1.3. COMPARING NORMAL CELLS AND CANCER CELLS

2.1.3.1. NORMAL CELLS: make exact copies of themselves through mitosis; reproduce for about 50-60 divisions; stick together to form masses of cells as appropriate; self-destruct when too old or too damaged

2.1.3.2. CANCER CELLS: make exact copies of themselves through mitosis; do not stop reproducing; do not stick to other cells and behave independently; may move to another location of the body

2.2. CELL DIFFERENTIATION AND SPECIALIZATION

2.2.1. EMBRYONIC & ADULT STEM CELLS

2.2.1.1. EMBRYONIC: found in almost all parts of embryos; can undergo differentiation and become ANY kind of tissue or organ

2.2.1.2. ADULT: found in only certain locations in adults; can only become a CERTAIN type of tissue; most adult stem cells are involved in the replacement of damaged tissue

2.2.1.3. PLANT MERISTEMATIC CELLS: found in growing tips of roots and stems and in the layer of the stem known as the cambium; are active throughout the life of the plant and they continually produce new cells of various types

2.2.2. ANIMAL AND PLANT TISSUE FUNCTIONS

2.2.2.1. EPITHELIAL: (Animal) lines the body cavities and outer surface of the body; protects structures; forms glands that produce hormones, enzymes and sweat

2.2.2.2. CONNECTIVE: (Animal) supports and protects structures; forms blood, stores fat and fills empty space

2.2.2.3. MUSCLE: (Animal) allows for movement

2.2.2.4. NERVOUS: (Animal) responds to stimuli and transmits and stores info

2.2.2.5. MERISTEMATIC: (Plant) unspecialized tissue  capable of diving by mitosis; formed in several locations on the plant and is responsible for growing new parts of the plant

2.2.2.6. EPIDERMAL: (Plant) forms the protective out covering and allows the exchange of materials and gases in and out of the plant

2.2.2.7. GROUND: (Plant) provides strength and support in the stem; stores food and water in the roots; is where photosynthesis occurs in the leaves

2.2.2.8. VASCULAR TISSUE: (Plant) moves substances from the roots to the leaves; transports sugars from the leaves to other parts of the plant

3. UNIT 3: From Tissues to Organs and Organ Systems

3.1. PLANT ORGAN SYSTEMS AND ORGANS

3.1.1. ORGANS

3.1.1.1. ROOTS: anchor the plant to the soil, collect and transport water, and store food from other parts of the plant; epidermal tissues create what is know as the root cap at the bottom of the roots and just below this layer of tissue is a layer of meristematic tissue that allows the roots to grow; layers of ground and vascular tissues make up the remainder of the roots

3.1.1.2. LEAF: makes food (sugar) for the plant through the process of photosynthesis; vascular tissues carry water up from the roots for photosynthesis and then carry this food elsewhere; water vapour, carbon dioxide and excess vapour enter and exit the leaf through stomata that appear as openings in the epidermal tissue; specialized ground tissue called "mesophyll" makes up most of the leaf

3.1.1.3. STEM: purposed to transport nutrients and food throughout the plant and to support the plant; epidermal tissue provides a protective covering and allows for the exchange of gases and water vapour (also secretes a waxy substance known as "cuticle" in most plants)

3.1.1.4. FLOWER: the plant's reproductive system; male organs called "stamen" each consist of a filament with an anther tip that produces pollen; "pistils" are made up of the ovary, style and stigma; when the reproductive cells of these two organs meet and fertilize, seeds are produced

3.1.2. ORGAN SYSTEMS

3.1.2.1. ROOT: everything below ground

3.1.2.2. SHOOT: the flower, leaves and stem of the plant

3.1.3. TRANSPIRATION: the evaporation of water through stomata in the leaves

3.1.3.1. Water enters through the root hairs, then travelling to the xylem before they defy gravity and travel up the stem and into the leaves. From the leaves the water exits through the stomata and this maintains the water pull as water continuously travels up the stem

3.1.4. Plants also have specialized cells that detect changes in the environment so that they can adjust functions accordingly

3.2. ANIMAL ORGAN SYSTEMS AND ORGANS

3.2.1. ORGANS

3.2.1.1. SKIN: the largest human organ and protects inner cells from damage as it acts as a defense against disease, insulates, releases heat and excretes bodily wastes; the epidermis prevents foreign organisms entry and produces vitamin D while the dermis is the inner layer made up of connective, nervous and muscle tissue

3.2.1.2. LUNG: the pair of organs involved in respiration that allow one to breath and is made up of connective an epithelial tissues; oxygen travels over the alveoli, through the capillaries and into the blood while carbon dioxide travels the reverse way

3.2.1.3. HEART: a four-chambered muscular pump that supplies blood to the whole body; divided into the left and right atria and the left and right ventricles; an adult heart weighs about 300g, is around the size of a fist and beats an average of about 3.5 billion times in a lifetime

3.2.1.4. ORGANS OF DIGESTION

3.2.1.4.1. MOUTH: takes in food and is lined with epithelial tissue in the form of glands that secrete mucus, saliva and other enzymes

3.2.1.4.2. ESOPHAGUS: food passes through here in a process known as "peristalsis"; lined with epithelial cells

3.2.1.4.3. STOMACH: churns food and mixes it with digestive juices and enzymes; made of the four tissue types

3.2.1.4.4. LIVER: produces bile

3.2.1.4.5. PANCREAS: produces pancreatic enzymes and insuline; also produces hormones

3.2.1.4.6. INTESTINES: areas of chemical digestion and removal of wastes

3.2.1.4.7. RECTUM & ANUS: solid wastes are stored in the rectum and exit the body through the anus

3.2.2. ORGAN SYSTEMS

3.2.2.1. DIGESTIVE SYSTEM: responsible for ingestion, digestion, the absorption of nutrients and the removal of wastes

3.2.2.2. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM: responsible for the exchange of gases

3.2.2.3. CIRCULATORY SYSTEM: responsible for the transportation of materials throughout the body

3.2.2.4. NERVOUS SYSTEM: responsible for controlling the body and coordinating fuctions

3.3. HOMEOSTASIS: an acceptable range of physical and chemical conditions in which body cells, tissues and organs can operate efficiently

4. UNIT 4: Advances in Biological Technologies

4.1. MEDICAL IMAGING & TECHNIQUES

4.1.1. DEFINITION: producing images of organs and tissues within the body for use in diagnosis and treatment

4.1.2. TECHNIQUES

4.1.2.1. X-RAY: high energy radiation that cannot easily penetrate metals and bone

4.1.2.1.1. MORE INFO

4.1.2.1.2. THE TWO TYPES OF X-RAY

4.1.2.2. ULTRASOUND: uses high-frequency sound waves to produce images of body tissue and organs

4.1.2.2.1. A device called the transducer produces the sound waves and is placed on the skin from which the sounds bounce around, much like an echo, in the targeted area

4.1.2.2.2. Used to study soft tissues and guide needles for biopsies

4.1.2.2.3. Used to study developing fetuses in pregnancies and to check for the presence of abnormalities, or in some cases, for the process of amniocentesis

4.1.2.2.4. Echocardiograms are used to check for abnormalities of the heart

4.1.2.3. COMPUTED ASSISTED TOMOGRAPHY: uses x-ray equipment to form a three-dimensional image from a series of images taken from different angles of the body

4.1.2.3.1. Frequently used to diagnose cancer, abnormalities in the skeletal system, and vascular disease

4.1.2.3.2. Provides a detailed cross-sectional view and can be used to image bone, soft tissue, and blood vessels at the same times

4.1.2.4. MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (MRI): uses powerful magnets and radio waves to produce detailed images of the body

4.1.2.4.1. The hydrogen atoms found in the waters of the human body interact with a strong magnetic field produced by the MRI machine

4.1.2.4.2. useful for imaging the structures of the brain, heart, liver soft tissues and the inside of bones

4.1.2.4.3. also used to diagnose forms of cancer, brain disease, and cardiovascular conditions

4.1.2.4.4. Open MRI machines are open on all sides and make MRIs for easier for people who are disabled or overly anxious

4.2. SOCIAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES IN SYSTEMS BIOLOGY

4.2.1. ORGAN TRANSPLANTS: due to better health care, Canada's rate of organ donation is low, about 14 organ donors to 1 million people; strategies to increase the number of organs available for transplant include using living donors; the overall world supply of organs does not meet the demand and in some countries individuals are encouraged to sell their organs

4.2.1.1. some of the more common organs that are donated by living donors include the kidney, liver, lung, small bowel and the pancreas

4.2.1.2. there are cases where some people's organs are removed without their consent

4.2.2. GENE THERAPY: involves replacing an absent or faulty gene with a normal gene; a virus has been modified to not cause disease is used to carry a replacement gene into the cell to correct the defect

4.2.2.1. gene therapy is currently an experimental procedure, but in the future gene therapy may be used to treat cancer, inherited diseases and viral infections

4.2.3. CLONING: creates a genetically identical organism that is an exact copy of a gene, cell, tissue, or organism.

4.2.3.1. MORE INFO

4.2.3.1.1. vegetative propagation and grafting are the two most common types of cloning for plants

4.2.3.1.2. animal clothing are surrounded by a lot of controversy with some research suggesting that cloned animals have genetic disease

4.2.3.1.3. human cloning raises moral and ethical concerns as it may give parents the ability to choose or design their offspring

4.2.3.2. REPRODUCTIVE: involves the transfer of a nucleus from a donor body cell into an egg cell that has no nucleus

4.2.3.2.1. This egg is then transferred to the womb of a mother and begins to grow

4.2.3.2.2. The embryo contains genetic information that is identical to the original body cell

4.2.3.2.3. May be useful in cloning endangered animals

4.2.3.3. GENE: involves the transfer of a gene into bacteria so that the gene can be reproduced multiple times

4.2.3.4. THERAPEUTIC: its purpose is to harvest embryonic stem cells from a developing embryo

4.2.3.4.1. These stem cells are used to regrow healthy tissue in place of damaged tissue

4.2.3.4.2. Tissues cloned in this manner are a very close match to the patient's tissue and would not be rejected

4.2.3.4.3. Cloned cells have the same genetic information as the original tissue

4.2.4. TRANSGENIC TECHNOLOGIES: contains the genes from other species

4.2.4.1. transgenic animals can produce organs that can be used in human organ transplants

4.2.4.2. transgenic livestock may have extra hormones that will make them grow faster and leaner

4.2.4.3. transgenic plants may have increased resistance to disease and environmental challenges

4.2.5. REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGIES: the process of collecting sperm from a male and placing it in the reproductive system of a female, this process is called artificial insemination

4.2.5.1. the process of collecting sperm and eggs and placing them in a test tube so that fertilization occurs is called in-vitro fertilization

4.2.5.2. social and ethical considerations associated with reproductive cloning

4.2.5.2.1. 1. whether the use of the technology is safe

4.2.5.2.2. 2. who owns the technology and products of the technology

4.2.5.2.3. 3. the standards and codes of practice that are in place for the development and use of the technology

4.2.5.2.4. 4. the definition of life