FIRST WAR OF INDEPENDENCE

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FIRST WAR OF INDEPENDENCE by Mind Map: FIRST WAR OF INDEPENDENCE

1. CAUSES

1.1. POLITICAL

1.1.1. POLICY OF EXPANSION

1.1.1.1. BY OUTRIGHT WARS

1.1.1.1.1. BATTLE OF BUXAR: MASTERS OF BENGAL, BIHAR AND ODHISSA

1.1.1.1.2. ANGLO MYSORE WARS: MYSORE STATE

1.1.1.1.3. ANGLO MARATHA WARS: PESHWA'S TERRITORY IN THE NORTH AND THE SOUTH

1.1.1.1.4. SECOND ANGLO SIKH WAR: PUNJAB

1.1.1.1.5. SINDH, ASSAM, ARAKAN

1.1.1.2. SUBSIDIARY ALLIANCE

1.1.1.2.1. INDIAN STATES BROUGHT UNDER THE BRITISH CONTROL WITHOUT REALLY ANNEXING THEM. THIS SYSTEM WAS INTRODUCED BY LORD WELLESLEY.

1.1.1.2.2. INDIAN RULERS WHO AGREED TO SUBSIDIARY ALLIANCE

1.1.1.3. DOCTRINE OF LAPSE

1.1.1.3.1. LORD DELHOUSIE: HEIRS ADOPTED WITHOUT THE COMPANY'S CONSENT COULD ONLY INHERIT PRIVATE PROPERTY AND NOT TERRITORY. EVEN TITLES WERE TAKEN AWAY.

1.1.1.3.2. RANI LAXMIBAI OF JHANSI'S SON ANAND RAO; SATARA, UDAIPUR, NAGPUR, JAITPUR.

1.1.1.4. ALLEGED MISMANAGEMENT

1.1.1.4.1. AWADH-TOO BIG. HOWEVER, UNDER THE BRITISH, THE TAXES WERE MUCH HIGHER.

1.1.1.4.2. SEPOYS (75,000 IN NUMBER OF THE COMPANY'S ARMY) WERE UPSET SINCE THEY HELPED BRITISH GAIN TERRITORIES AND NOW THEIR OWN HOMELAND WAS A VICTIM.

1.1.2. DISRESPECT SHOWN TO BAHADUR SHAH

1.1.2.1. THE LAST MUGHAL EMPEROR WAS NOW A MERE PENSION SEEKER OF THE BRITISH

1.1.2.2. LORD DELHOUSIE ANNOUNCED THAT HIS SUCCESSORS WERE NOT ALLOWED TO USE THE RED FORT. THEY HAD TO SHIFT TO A PLACE NEAR THE QUTUB MINAR.

1.1.2.3. LORD CANNING ANNOUNCED THAT AFTER HIS DEATH,HIS SUCCESSORS WERE NOT ALLOWED TO USE THIER TITLES.

1.1.2.4. THUS, ZEENAT MAHAL, HIS WIFE BEGAN PLOTTING AGAINST THE BRITISH.

1.1.3. TREATMENT GIVEN TO NANA SAHEB AND RANI LAXMIBAI

1.1.3.1. NANASEHEB WAS THE SON OF PESHWA BAJIRAO II. HE WAS FORCED TO LIVE IN KANPUR. THE BRITISHERS REFUSED HIM THE PENSION THEY HAD GRANTED HIS FATHER. WITH WHATEVER HE INHERITED, HE SENT PEOPLE FAR AND WIDE TO CREATE AWARENESS OF THE UNFAIRNESS OF THE BRITISH RULE. HE HIMSELF TRAVELLED BETWEEN DELHI AND LUCKNOW TO GATHER SUPPORT.

1.1.3.2. AFTER THE ILL-TREATEMENT GIVEN TO HER SON, RANI LAXMIBAI ALSO BECAME A SWORN ENEMY OF THE BRITISH.

1.1.4. ABSENTEE SOVEREIGNTY OF THE BRITISH

1.1.4.1. THE BRITISHERS RULED THE LAND FROM A DISTANCES OF THOUSANDS OF MILES.

1.1.4.2. OTHER RULES THAT RULED INDIA COLLECTED TAXES FOR THE BENEFIT OF THIS COUNTRY. THE BRITISH BUILD UP THEIR OWN MOTHERLAND.

1.2. SOCIO RELIGIOUS

1.2.1. INTERFERENCE WITH SOCIAL CUSTOMS

1.2.1.1. SATI (1829); WIDOW REMARRIAGE ACT (1856)

1.2.2. APPREHENSIONS ABOUT MODERN CUSTOMS

1.2.2.1. TELEGRAPH POLES: HANG PEOPLE

1.2.2.2. RAILWAY COMPARTMENTS: HIGHER AND LOWER CASTE WERE MADE TO SIT TOGETHER.

1.2.3. POLICY OF RACIAL DISCRIMINATION

1.2.3.1. BRITISHERS WERE RUDE AND ARROGANT

1.2.3.2. CALLED MUSLIMS CRUEL AND FAITHLESS

1.2.4. CORRUPTION IN ADMINISTRATION

1.2.4.1. RICH GOT AWAY WITH CRIMES. COMMON MAN WAS LOOTED, OPPRESSED AND TORTURED.

1.2.5. OPPRESSION OF THE POOR

1.2.5.1. THE JUDICIAL SYSTEM WAS MANAGED IN SUCH A WAY THAT THE POOR WAS OFTEN FLOGGED, TORTURED AND IMPRISONED FOR THEIR INABILITY TO PAY HIGH TAXES.

1.2.5.2. THUS,THEY GREW DESPERATE AND JOINED THE REVOLT.

1.2.6. ACTIVITIES OF THE MISSIONARIES

1.2.6.1. BRITISHERS DENOUNCED IDOL WORSHIP AND LAUDED LOCAL BELIEFS AS IGNORANT.

1.2.6.2. AN INCREASE IN THE NUMBER OF MISSIONARY ACTIVITIES.

1.2.7. FEARS REGARDING WESTERN EDUCATION

1.2.7.1. ENGLISH EDUCATION WAS INTRODUCED IN A CALCUTTA MADRASA, FOLLOWED BY SANSKRIT COLLEGE IN BENARAS.

1.2.7.2. REDUCED THE IMPORTANCE OF THE 'PANDITS' AND THE 'MAULVIS'

1.2.8. TAXING RELIGIOUS PLACES

1.2.8.1. LANDS OF MOSQUES AND TEMPLES WERE EXEMPTED FROM TAXES BY ALL PREVIOUS RULERS

1.2.8.2. THE RELIGIOUS SENTIMENTS OF THE INDIANS WAS HURT BY THE BRITISH TAXATION OF SUCH LANDS

1.2.9. LAWS OF PROPERTY

1.2.9.1. THE RELIGIOUS DISABLITIES ACT OF 1850 ENABLED A SON OF A HINDU FATHER TO CONVERT TO ANOTHER RELIGION, AND YET INHERIT HIS PROPERTY.

1.3. ECONOMIC

1.3.1. EXPLOITATION OF ECONOMIC RESOURCES

1.3.1.1. THE TAXES CREATED A SITUATION WHERE INDIA HAD TO EXPORT RAW MATERIALS AND IMPORT FINSIHED PRODUCTS.

1.3.1.2. THE INDIAN GOODS COULD NOT COMPETE WITH THE MACHINE MADE GOODS MADE IN ENGLAND.

1.3.2. DRAIN OF WEALTH

1.3.2.1. BRITISHERS USED THE MONEY MADE FROM THEIR OWN TAXES TO PURCHASE RAW MATERIAL

1.3.2.2. THUS, NO GOLD WAS MADE BY INDIA ANYMORE.

1.3.2.3. THUS, THE WEALTH OF INDIA WAS DRAINED INTO ENGLAND.

1.3.3. DECAY OF COTTAGE INDUSTRIES AND HANDICRAFTS

1.3.3.1. HEAVY DUTIES ON  SILK AND COTTON FOR EXPORT. HOWEVER, IMPORTS WERE NOT CHARGED HEAVILY.

1.3.4. ECONOMIC DECLINE OF PEASANTRY

1.3.4.1. LAND REVENUE WAS INCREASED AND ALMOST DOUBLED FROM THAT OF THE MUGHALS TO FEED THE WAR NEEDS OF THE BRITISH. NOTHING WAS DONE TO IMPORVE AGRICULTURE.

1.3.4.2. THE PEASANTS HAD TO BEAR THESE TAXES AND WERE RENDERED BANKRUPT.

1.3.5. GROWING UNEMPLOYMENT

1.3.5.1. SCHOLARS, MEN OF ART PATRONISED BY RULERS. THE MONARCHICAL ARMY.

1.3.6. INHUMAN TREATMENT OF INDIGO CULTIVATORS

1.3.6.1. BRITISH CHOSEN LANDS WERE CULTIVATED ONLY FOR INDIGO INSTEAD OF FOOD CROPS. CULTIVATING ANYTHING ELSE WAS PUNISHED BY DESTRUCTION OF THE CROP AND CONFISCATION OF THEIR CATTLE.

1.3.7. POVERTY AND FAMINES

1.3.7.1. NO TRADITIONAL TRADERS. NO FOOD CROPS. EXTREME TAXATION.

1.3.8. DECLINE OF LANDED ARISTOCRACY

1.3.8.1. TALUQDARS AND ZAMINDARS HAD THEIR LANDS CONFISCATED BECAUSE THEY COULD PRODUCE NO PROOF OF OWNERSHIP.

1.3.8.2. THESE LANDS WERE AUCTIONED AT HIGH PRICES TO MONEY LENDERS, WHO COULD NOT UNDERSTAND THE NEEDS OF THE TENANTS AND EXPLOITED THEM.

1.4. MILITARY

1.4.1. ILL-TREATMENT OF INDIAN SOLDIERS

1.4.1.1. THE EAST INDIA COMPANY ESTABLISHED THE BRITISH EMPIRE IN INDIA, ON THE EFFORTS OF THE INDIAN SOLDIERS.

1.4.1.2. THE INDIANS WERE EQUALLY AS GOOD AS THE BRITISH, HOWEVER, THEY WERE PAID LOWER, ILL FED AND BADLY HOUSED.

1.4.1.3. THE BRITISH MILITARY AUTHORITIES FORBADE THE SEPOYS FROM WEARING CASTE OR SECTARAIN MARKS LIKE TURBANS OR BEARDS, HURTING THE SENTIMENTS OF THE SEPOYS.

1.4.2. GENERAL SERVICE ENLISTMENT ACT

1.4.2.1. ACCORDING TOO TRADITION, IT WAS A TABOO FOR A BRAHMIN TO CROSS THE SEA.

1.4.2.2. THE BRITISH PARLIAMENT PASSED THE GENERAL SERVICE ENLISTMENT ACT IN 1856, WHICH MADE IT PROBABLE FOR SOLDIERS TO BE SENT OVERSEAS ON DUTY.

1.4.2.3. THE BRAHMIN SOLDIERS SAW THIS A DANGER TO THEIR CASTE.

1.4.3. LARGE PROPORTION OF INDIANS IN THE BRITISH ARMY

1.4.3.1. IN 1857, THE COMPANY'S TROOPS COMPRISED 2,38,000 INDIAN SOLDIERS AND 45,322 BRITISH SOLDIERS.

1.4.3.2. LORD DELHOUSIE RECOMMENDED MORE BRITISH SOLDIERS TO BE RECRUITED.

1.4.3.3. THIS COULD NOT COME THROUGH, AND IT MADE IT EASIER FOR THE LARGE NUMBER OF INDIAN SOLDIERS TO TAKE UP ARMS AGAINST THE BRITISH.

1.4.4. BLEAK PROSPECTS OF PROMOTIONS

1.4.4.1. ALL HIGHER POSITIONS WERE RESERVED FOR THE BRITISH, IRRESPECTIVE OF PERFORMANCE.

1.4.4.2. EVEN INDIAN SOLDIERS, HOLDING HIGHER RANKS IN THE ARMIES OF PRINCES, COULD NOT RANK HIGHER THAN THE POST OF SUBEDAR.

1.4.5. DEPREVATION OF ALLOWANCES

1.4.5.1. THE EXPANDED BRITISH EMPIRE, DEMANDED THE NEED FOR SOLDIERS IN VARIOUS PARTS OF THE COUNTRY.

1.4.5.2. THESE SEPOYS WERE MADE TO WORK FAR AWAY FROM HOME WITHOUT EXTRA PAYMENT AND FOREIGN ALLOWANCE CALLED "BHATTA"

1.4.5.3. THE POST OFFICE ACT OF 1854 WITHDREW THE PRIVILEGE OF FREE POSTAGE ENJOYED BY THE SEPOYS.

1.4.6. FAULTY DISTRIBUTION OF TROOPS

1.4.6.1. PLACES OF STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE SUCH AS DEHLI AND ALLAHABAD WERE WHOLLY HELD BY INDIAN SOLDIERS.

1.4.6.2. THE BRITISH WERE ENGAGED IN SEVERAL WARS OUTSIDE INDIA eg: THE PERSIAN WAR, THE CHINESE WAR, CRIMEAN WAR.

1.4.6.3. THIS SEEMED A GOOD TIME TO STRIKE.

1.4.7. POOR PERFORMANCE OF BRITISH TROOPS

1.4.7.1. THE BRITISH ARMY SUFFERED MAJOR REVERSES IN 1. THE AFGHAN WAR  2. THE PUNJAB WARS 3. THE CRIMEAN WAR 4. THE SANTHAL UPRISING (THE TRIBESMEN OF BIHAR AND BENGAL ARMED WITH AXES AND ARROWS)

1.4.7.2. THIS BROKE THE MYTH THAT THE BRITISH WERE NOT INVINCIBLE.

1.4.8. LOWER SALARIES

1.4.8.1. THE WAGES OF THE INDIAN SOLDIERS WAS NOT ENOUGH TO SUPPORT THEIR FAMILIES.

1.4.8.2. THE BRITISH SOLDIERS RECEIVED EIGHT TIMES THE SALARY OF AN INDIAN SOLDIER.

1.5. IMMEDIATE CAUSE

1.5.1. REPLACED THE OLD FASHIONED MUSKET WITH THE NEW ENFIELD RIFLE.

1.5.2. THE LOADING PROCESS INVOLVED BITING OFF THE TOP GREASED PAPER OF THE CARTRIDGE WITH THE MOUTH.

1.5.3. THERE WAS A RUMOUR IN IN THE BENGAL REGIMENT THAT THE GREASE OF THE CARTRIDGE CONTAINED THE FAT OF COW OR PIG.

1.5.4. THIS DEFILED BOTH THE HINDU AS WELL AS THE ISLAMIC FAITHS.

2. CONSEQUNCES

2.1. END OF THE COMPANY'S RULE

2.1.1. UNDER THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA ACT, 1858.

2.1.2. TRANSFERRED THE GOVERNMENT FROM THE COMPANY TO THE CROWN.

2.1.3. POWER  BEFORE : THE COMPANY AND BOARD OF CONTROL, NOW : SECRETARY OF STATE FOR INDIA AIDED BY A COUNCIL. THIS SECRETARY OF STATE WAS A MEMBER OF THE BRITISH CABINET AND WAS RESPONSIBLE TO THE PARLIAMENT.

2.1.4. COUNCIL: 15 MEMBERS. (7 ELECTED BY COURT OF DIRECTORS+8 NOMINATED BY THE CROWN) MORE THAN HALF WERE TO HAVE RESIDED OR SERVED IN INDIA BEYOND 10 YEARS.

2.1.5. SALARY OF THE SECRETARY OF STATE WAS TO BE PAID OUT OF INDIAN REVENUES.

2.1.6. GOVERNANCE BEFORE: GOVERNOR GENERAL. NOW: VICEROY. LORD CANNING WAS THE FIRST VICEROY.

2.1.7. APPOINTMENTS MADE TO THE CIVIL SERVICE WERE TO BE MADE UNDER RULES MADE BY THE SECRETARY OF STATE.

2.2. QUEEN VICTORIA'S PROCLAMATION

2.2.1. ALLAHABAD, 1ST NOVEMBER, 1858, BY LORD CANNING.

2.2.2. PROMISES MADE ABOUT NON INTERFERENCE IN SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS MATTERS

2.2.3. INDIANS AND EUROPEANS WERE EQUALS

2.2.4. GENERAL PARDON TO THOSE WHO PARTICIPATED IN THE REVOLT, EXCEPT THOSE GUILTY OF MURDER OF BRITISH SUBJECTS.

2.2.5. ADVANCEMENT OF INDIAN INDUSTRIES.

2.2.6. WORKS OF PUBLIC UTITLITY PROMOTED

2.3. END OF MUGHALS AND PESHWAS

2.3.1. BAHADUR SHAH DEPORTED TO YANGON

2.3.2. NANA SAHEB FLED TO NEPAL

2.4. RELATIONS WITH PRINCELY STATES

2.4.1. POLICY OF ANNEXATION AND DOCTRINE OF LAPSE WERE ABANDONED.

2.4.2. LOYAL INDIAN PRINCES THAT CONTINUED TO SUPPORT THE BRITISH WERE REWARDED WITH THE ALLOWANCE OF ADOPTING HEIRS.

2.4.3. QUEEN VICTORIA WAS DECLARED AS EMPRESS OF INDIA AND THE INDIAN PRINCES ACTED AS HER REGENT, RULING THEIR STATES.

2.5. POLICY OF DIVIDE AND RULE

2.5.1. PRINCE VS PRINCE; PRINCE VS PEOPLE; CASTE AGAINST CASTE; HINDUS AGAINST MUSLIMS

2.6. RACIAL ANTAGONISM

2.6.1. MAINTAINED A SOCIAL DISTANCE WITH INDIANS. RESERVED RAILWAY COMPARTMENTS, PARKS, CLUBS AND HOTELS FOR EUROPEANS ONLY.

2.7. FOREIGN POLICY

2.7.1. PROTECT THE INDIAN EMPIRE & EXPAND BRITISH COMMERCIAL AND ECONOMIC INTERESTS IN THE COLONIES.

2.7.2. THE COLONIES PROVIDED MAN AND MONEY

2.8. INCREASED RACIAL BITTERNESS

2.8.1. HUMILIATED INDIANS

2.9. RELIGIOUS CHANGES

2.9.1. A POLICY OF NON-INTERFERENCE

2.10. CHANGES IN THE ARMY

2.10.1. STRENGTH OF EUROPEAN TROOPS WAS INCREASED TO  65,000. INDIANS REDUCED TO 140,000

2.10.2. EUROPEAN TROOPS WERE POSITIONED IN KEY GEOGRAPHICAL POSITIONS.

2.10.3. INDIANS WERE STILL EXCLUDED FROM THE OFFICER CORPS

2.10.4. SOPHISTICATED WEAPONS WERE NEVER PLACED IN CHARGE OF INDIANS.

2.10.5. RECRUITMENT WAS BASED ON CASTE, REGION AND RELIGION SO AS TO PROMOTE DIVIDE AND RULE.

2.10.6. NEWS PAPERS WERE PREVENTED FROM REACHING THE SOLDIERS.

2.11. ECONOMIC EXPLOITATION

2.11.1. EXPORTING RAW MATERIALS, IMPORT FINISHED GOODS.

2.11.2. THE SALARIES OF THE SECRETARY OF STATE, MEMBERS OF THE INDIA COUNCIL AND MILITARY OFFICERS WAS A BURDEN TO THE ECONOMY.

2.11.3. PEASANTS WERE IMPOVERISHED.

2.11.4. RURAL ARTISANS COLLAPSED.

2.12. RISE OF NATIONALISM

2.12.1. FIRST STRUGGLE OF THE INDIANS.

2.13. WIDENING OF THE GULF BETWEEN HINDUS AND MUSLIMS

2.13.1. DUE TO THE DIVIDE AND RULE POLICY.