Get Started. It's Free
or sign up with your email address

1. acurracy vs. fluency

1.1. language- based focus on accuracy or message-based focus on fluency, interaction, meaning

2. How to treat errors ?

2.1. BASIC OPTIONS : 1. to treat or to ignore, 2. to treat immediately or to delay, 3. to transfer treatment ( to, say, other learners) or not, 4. to transfer to another individual, a subgroup, or the whole class, 5. to return, or not, to the original error maker after treatment, 6. to permit other learners to initiate treatment, 7. to test for the efficacy of the treatment ( Brown, p.347)

2.2. POSSIBLE FEATURES : 1. fact of error indicated, 2. location indicated, 3.opportunity for new attempt given, 4. model provided, 5. error type indicated, 6. remedy indicated, 7. improvement indicated, 8. praise indicated ( Brown, p.347)

2.3. Teacher has to decide : if to treat the error or ignore it, when to do it (immediately or later), who should do it ( teacher, whole class etc.), and how ( indirect or direct manner...)

3. Students are afraid of speaking?

3.1. Delaying speech production (especially beginners shouldn't be asked to speak at the beginning, if they don't wish to )

3.2. Imitative speaking performance (students practice an intonation contour or a certain wovel sound), drilling (controlled activity) - limited practise through repetition (loosing the tongue), drilling has to be as meaningful as possible

3.3. teacher should provide warm, embracing climate that encourages students to speak

3.4. The role of feedback : corrective feedback and noncorrective feedback ( too much negative cognitive feedback often leads the learners to shut off their attempts at communication, too much positive cognitive feedback serves to reinforce the errors

4. Error vs. mistake

4.1. mistakes ( slip of the tongue, related to performance, student might be tired or nervous, but knows the rule ) and errors ( student doesn't know the rule, competence, ability), mistakes often do not need correction, errors demand some sort of teacher response

5. Errors

5.1. Types : lexical, phonological, grammatical, discourse, pragmatic, sociocultural

5.2. Source : L1, L2, teacher-induced, other Ss, outside L2 input, electronic media

5.3. global and local errors