Planning for Teaching and Learning

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Planning for Teaching and Learning by Mind Map: Planning for Teaching and Learning

1. The importance of planning

1.1. Give a sense of direction and, through this, a feeling of confidence and security. Planning can help you stay on course and reduce your anxiety about instruction.

1.2. Organize, sequence, and increase familiarity with course content

1.3. Prepare to interact with students during instruction. This may include preparing a list of important questions or guidelines for a cooperative group activity

1.4. Incorporate techniques to motivate students to learn in each lesson

1.5. Take into account individual  differences and the diversity of students when

1.6. Arrange fo appropriate requirements and evaluation of student performance

1.7. Become reflective decision-maker about curriculum and instruction

2. Organizational Skills

2.1. Study Skills

2.1.1. Summarizing and note taking are vitally important instructional strategies that correlate with student learning. They must be explicitly taught and monitored. Outlining is a related skill that will prove  invaluable

2.1.2. Students are usually unsuccessful when it comes to studying for tests at the middle school level through the use of various ineffective techniques such as cramming. We as middle school teachers need to teach what we test, and test what we teach, then assessment in the form of quizzes and tests should not be a mystery.

2.1.3. Share your learning style and the ticks you use in addition to trying new ones yourself.

2.2. Time Management

2.2.1. Middle school grade students are moving away from dependency towards independence when their own personal decision making concerning time will affect with they accomplish or fail to accomplish.

2.2.2. With effective planning, students will work within a structure. but having a structure dose not necessarily guarantee that young adolescents will use their classroom time productively.

2.2.3. Emphasis must be on using class time wisely to engage students mentally. interesting lessons requiring individual and group accountability will help engage and elicit participation from the reticent, sometimes mentally lazy, occasionally daydreaming kids who inevitably inhabit our middle school level classrooms.

2.2.4. We need to provide time management guidelines for each assignment that we give so our students understand the amount of time needed to complete.

2.2.5. A calendar or assignment pad is incredibly valuable. the ultimate time management tool. Having an assignment pad doesn't guarantee accomplishment however Assignment pads should be checked by a parent our guardian.

2.3. School Supplies

2.3.1. Providing a team-coordinated list of required school supplies is essential.

2.3.2. some teachers provide extra tools for the students to use for their learning process such as dry erase boards.

2.3.3. Depending on the particular situation, keeping extra supplies in the ready is critical for students who infrequently bring the required materials to the classroom and are underprepared. The students who will usually come underprepared will also need to have reminders about the importance of having the necessary items.

3. Goals and Objectives

3.1. Goals

3.1.1. Are general statements of intent. They are broad and do not specify steps toward reaching them.They may be written in a hierarchal fashion to give guidance and direction for learning. Goal setting is an essential aspect of teaching that guides our instructional planning.

3.1.2. In writing goals there are 3 broad concepts to consider. Need of the learner Subject Matter Needs of society Examples of classroom goals Students will understand how math is used in everyday life Students will grasp the importance of conservation with regard to natural resources students will appreciate the musical contributions of major composers Students will understand the influence of William Faulkner on the image of the south

3.2. Objectives

3.2.1. A learning object is a statement of the measurable learning that is intended to take place as a result of instruction.` the term learning objectives encompasses other terms like performance objectives, cognitive objectives affective objectives, content objectives and other modifications of the basic word objectives. this encompasses on objectives as measurable . while some goals may state ideals, objectives use verbs to define specific learning and provide ways to determine if the learning actually occurs. the objective is accomplished as the result of instruction. To be meaningful, it must guide instruction and be the reason for doing what we do in the classroom

3.2.2. Using action verbs to describe the learning we want to occur makes it possible to select instructional strategies to bring about the learning and to design assessments to verify the learning Most learning objectives start with "students will" Keeping a chart containing verbs associated with blooms taxonomy is a good way to check for inclusion of each of the six categories of learning while varying verb usage. Students will recall the order of the major wars involving the United States Students will match the authors to the titles of the books listed on the greatamerican authors chart Students will classify each polyhedron as a pyramid or a prism Students will summarize a paragraph, preserving the main idea

3.2.3. Learning objectives are often included in state/standards, textbooks, and other instructional materials.

3.2.4. If the learning objectives express what you want your students to know and be able to do, then use them- if not then in exactly as the words were used originally, then as starting points.

3.2.5. Writing your learning objections in a particular place on the board each day gives students a sense of organizational purpose. Refer to the objective at the beginning of the class period t=and then draw student attention to it again towards the end of the class and ask for opinions on whether or not the objective was reached. Adolescents are capable of critical thought, give them opportunities to practice.

4. Resources for Teaching

4.1. Selection of Resources

4.1.1. With all the different varieties of  electronic resources produced continuously, the dilemma that we come across is we can't use it all and we shouldn't. Furthermore we need to use common sense and decision making skills to choose the various resources.

4.1.2. The resources published by companies not affiliated with school or national organizations should be chosen with care. Choices guided by the curriculum content we teach and grade/developmental appropriateness.

4.1.3. Some districts and schools give teachers set amounts of money to spend each year on classroom resources. this is a luxury, and we need to be good stewards of these funds.

4.1.4. Principals have resource budgets that allow them to take teacher requests and buy resources as far asa their budgeted dollars will allow. Most teachers have more resources at their disposal than they weill ever use over the course of a school year. Because of this, new teachers should never feel handicapped by lack of stuff

4.1.5. There are many things to consider when choosing resources, including relationship of resources to course objectives and curriculum standards educational value in terms of curricular and instructional goals absence of bias concerning under, race, religion relative worthiness of the time necessary to implement or use the resource motivational attributes from a student perspective accuracy and timelines of content

4.1.6. Just because a workbook or lesson or manipulative is attractive and potentially fun to use does not qualify it as appropriate for our classrooms. If it does not have the potential to increase student learning, then it is wasting precious minutes.

4.2. Textbooks

4.2.1. when we talk about adopting a textbook series at the state, district or school district level we are talking about more than a solitary book. publishers have responded to the call for accountability and ever-burgeoning technology by providing amazing tools for teachers.

4.2.2. Along with the basic textbooks  and teachers editions, you may receive consumable workbooks CD ROMs full of supplemental material, booklets for student and parental interactive practice, special software, supplemental literature books, packets of maps, boxes of math and science and powerpoint presentations.

4.2.3. A textbook is not the curriculum is not the shaper of instruction not the sequencer of content not the only source of information in your subject area

4.2.4. textbooks that aline closely with national and state subject area/grade level standards can form a cases for our instructional planning

5. Collaborative Planning

5.1. Same Subject Planning

5.1.1. • If the school is large enough to have more than one team per grade level, you will have one or more colleagues who teach the same subject at the same grade level. o This enables you to use similar curriculum guides, standards, textbook, and basic materials. • Two heads are better than one

5.1.2. • Constructing content in your own way is good but when applying more than one approach we need to collaborate in order to achieve a richer result. o This will be better for our students as well

5.1.3. Sometimes planning with the same subject teachers on different grade levels is very helpful. This is vertical articulation. o Vertical articulation is crossing grade levels and resulting in communication. o It is helpful to understand the standard and instructional methodology your students experienced before they cane to you as well the expectations that await them when they leave the classroom.

5.2. Planning with students

5.2.1. • There are degrees of implementation of teacher and student collaborative planning. Man middle school classrooms encourage student input in the planning process. o The concept of curriculum integration involves a student-centered approach in which students are invited to join with their teachers to plan learning experiences that address both student concerns and major social issues. o Student involvement in planning helps create a student-centered classroom regardless of the degree of curriculum integration. • Collaborating with our students in planning which include experimental, hands-on activities they had a voice in designing or selecting, would demonstrate our commitment to ensuring that the curriculum is both personally relevant and meaningful to students. o Teachers are responsible for the curriculum and instruction in their classrooms • Involving students in that responsibility doesn’t diminish that responsibility. Determining when and how to bring students into the process may be based on many factors, including a teacher comfort level with the required standards and the planning process in general.

6. Levels of Planning

6.1. Long-Range Planning

6.1.1. • Long range plans are comprehensive guides for facilitating learning involving student profiles, content and sequencing, classroom management philosophy, instructional strategies, and overall organizational factors. Writing a long range plan requires that we think ahead and consider the big picture.

6.1.2. • Student information: Develop a student profile by reading permanent files, looking at test scores, talking to teachers who have taught them, driving through the neighborhoods where your students live, considering socioeconomic factors such as free/ reduced lunch statue, and gauging student interests through some sort of survey in the first few days of school.

6.1.3. • Content information: Identify the body of knowledge and skills that compose your course content.

6.1.4. • Sequence: Determine the sequence of the content you will teach. Develop a time line.

6.1.5. • Materials: List the instructional resources that you will need to organize or order

6.1.6. • Assessment: Determine major forms of assessment for evaluation student progress.

6.1.7. • Units of study: Determine large chunks of content that may be considered units of study.

6.1.8. Records: select or design a system for keeping student progress and achievement

6.1.9. Management: Develop rules, consequesnes, and procedures for classroom management, as well as noninstuctinal routines.

6.1.10. Communication: Determine ways to communicate with students, colleagues, parents, and the community.

6.2. Single Subject Units

6.2.1. Most of the content and skills included in the grades curriculum will fall neatly into units around themes. State standards and district curriculum guides are typically organized in ways that are friendly so that creating a subject doesn't need to be forced. The unit can provide a context for learning by revolving around, and being based on, a big idea. select a suitable theme. Something obvious such as Western settlement. determine goals and specific objects for the unit. In a unit on photosynthesis there will be opportunities to discuss the earth's relationship to the sun and other concepts of astronomy with your goals and objectives in mind, determine assessments that will gauge learning. Keep in mind the broad array of assessments discussed develop pre-assessments to determine prior knowledge. Example, KWL session involve students in unit planning. Explain overall goals and give a sense of where you are heading. Allow brainstorming projects and activities that relates to the theme. Incorporate as many of their ideas as possible. sequence learning objectives and make daily gather resources and arrange for special events that will enhance the unit. Examples would be books, videos, special forms of media, or a guest speaker if desired.

6.3. Interdisciplinary Units

6.3.1. A unit requires interest and communication among the teachers involved along with ample time to plan together.

6.3.2. choose a theme. By comparing the long-range plans it is possible for teams to choose a theme that accommodates the standards of each subject area. Concepts are building blocks of meaning. Examples of concepts include change, conflict, Inter dependence, patterns and power.

6.3.3. develop essential questions and big ideas. Essential questions guide students through unit framing the essence of what the class realistically can examine any amount of time they have. answers to essential questions may be very contributing to big ideas of the unit

6.3.4. web the theme. Use a simple graphic organizer, the theme/subject web, team members and related arts teachers should spend considerable time brainstorming ways to use standards, activities, research, readings, etc. to address the theme. Include students in this successful and enjoyable wedding experience tell students that you want to help them in their planning of study or wherever the theme is and ask them for ideas

6.3.5. plan the beginning, accumulating, and scheduled changing events. It takes planning from the attention gathering beginning through schedule changing events to a meaningful and unforgettable culmination.

6.3.6. write daily plans. A meaningful and well written unit D pens on the every day classroom experiences to draw together the connections related to the theme with in and among the subject areas. As teachers begin planning what, when, and how to teach aspects of a unit, they need to talk frequently and share tentative plans

6.3.7. plan assessments. In step two, the central questions and big ideas are planned, for filling the concept of backwards design. In the step where determining what students to know and are able to do are the result of creating a variety of ways which include parameters of the unit is how we figure out what students know

6.3.8. if you unit as a whole. Several weeks before implementation, teams need to re-examine the big picture of the unit and focus on support issues. are all the planned activities meaningful with opportunities for higher order thinking?

6.3.9. evaluate the unit. Allow everyone involved to get feedback. Team teachers and related arts teachers all need to give detailed feedback in meaning and/or writing. D briefing is vital to future success.

6.3.10. make a detailed log of the unit. It is important to keep a comprehensive summary of planning, implementation, and feedback.

6.4. Daily Lesson Planning

6.4.1. The quality of day today classroom experiences depends in large measure on the quality of teacher designed lesson plans. There is no one the right way to plan a lesson the variables involved in planning a lesson and the variability of our students and our subject areas determine appropriate approaches Keeping a three ring binder of daily plans is a positive habit that you will value more and more with time. what are the components of lessons? anticipatory set- this is the beginning of the lesson that helps learners focus on what's ahead. Objective clarification. A clear objective communicated to students along with the attention-getting anticipatory set will kickstart your lesson presentation of new knowledge and skills. The decisions we make about the appropriateness of strategies based on the content, and students interests and needs, must be made during the planning process, as well as decisions about individual and/or group work. guided practice with Feedback. Practice can take many forms, depending on the content, skills and classroom circumstances. Guided practice typically occurs during class and brief enough to allow time for feedback. assignment of independent practice closure. A lesson should not end because the bell rings. Flexibility dictates that we not insist on completing all we have planned in a class. Just because we wrote it as a class period package

6.4.2. Varying class Lengths: as you plan for a class, keep in mind that there are a few activities or assignments that were engage young adolescents for more than 20 minutes at a time.

6.4.3. practical advice over plan rather than under plan to avoid wasting valuable class time. It's much easier to eliminate a plans elements than a need to improvise check for levels of blooms taxonomy, use of multiple intelligences theory, differentiation to meet students needs- all the aspects the help ensure effective instruction. regardless of where you are in your plan, allow time for closure that wraps up the lesson. never leave school without a written plan for the following day. gather materials and arrange for resources at least a day ahead. be flexible this is possible when will you know the content, practice and variety of instructional strategies, and plan thoughtfully. Interruptions happen, alternating our plans may be necessary for academic reasons as well as any number of other occurrences totally outside of our control. spend time reflecting on lessons. Fill in the gaps and adjust the following days plans after reflecting on your lesson keep notes about things you might change your add as resources for future planning.

6.4.4. Homework -for elementary students assigned homework has little if any affect on achievement however for high school students the benefits of been assigned and completing homework are substantial for middle school students the benefits are more evidence then for elementary but no more than half as effective for high school students. Home circumstances may play a role in the completion of homework. Whether or not to assign homework, how much, and what kind in addition to what percentage of the grade it will be worth is something that should be guided by the needs and characteristics of our students. student should be accountable for turning in work. we need to think about designing homework as well as assigning homework. Instead of asking students to answer questions about section, we might ask them to write questions about what they read using question stems from blooms taxonomy.

7. Reflections on Planning

7.1. your understanding of the content you teach will be deeper and broader allowing for more within discipline and among disciplines connections to be made naturally as you plan.

7.2. you will have a larger toolbox of instructional strategies to use in your planning

7.3. you will become more confident in your knowledge of student development leading to the ability to be more responsive to the needs of young adolescents

7.4. your peripheral vision in the classroom will grow wider to allow more affective observation of students

7.5. you will know more about available materials and resources to use in lesson planning

7.6. your lesson planning will be more sophisticated as you understand how to use students prior knowledge to build on the potential of your class

7.7. planning is a series of decisions each building on other decisions. Thorough, thoughtful, written plans determine to a large extent the learning that happens in a classroom.