My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Conservative

1.1.1. looks at social evolution

1.1.2. strongest individuals survive

1.1.2.1. compete in the social environment

1.1.3. adapt to changes

1.1.4. based on individual initiative and drive

1.1.5. developed by sociologist William Graham Sumner

1.1.6. Free- market

1.1.6.1. most economically product

1.1.6.2. most respectful of human needs

1.1.7. Writings by British political economist Adam Smithand applied to economic policy by Nobel laureate economist Milton Friedman

1.1.7.1. individual inititative

1.1.7.2. maximization of economic growth and individual liberty with competion

1.1.7.3. abuses can be minimized

1.2. Traditional

1.2.1. traditional values

1.2.1.1. hard work

1.2.1.2. family unity

1.2.2. pass on what was the best and what is the best

1.2.3. curriculum

1.2.4. historical evidence

2. History of U.S. Education

2.1. During the 1830s, Horace Mann struggled for free public education.  He lobbied for a state board of education.

2.1.1. Concern for stability, order, and social mobility

2.1.2. In 1837 Massachusetts created a state board of education and made him the secretary.

2.1.3. His annual reports served as models for public school reforms throughout the nation.

2.2. Preparation for citizenship

2.3. "the great equalizer of the conditions of men"

2.4. Technological interpretation

2.4.1. The growth and structure of U.S. education based on labor- training needs created by growth in the economy.

2.4.2. No evidence of growth in skill requirements in 19th century, nor did it embrace the idea that schoold would teach work related skills.

2.4.2.1. no more productive than unschooled workers

2.4.3. cognitive skills do not account for the association between education and economic success

3. Sociological Perspectives

3.1. Theoretical Perspective

3.1.1. guide to understanding the relation between school and society because it gives one the intellect to base their findings.

3.2. Ron Edmonds-

3.2.1. the pioneer of the effective schools movement

3.2.1.1. academically oriented schools produce higher rates of learning

3.3. Education is related to individuals' sense of well-being and self-esteem

3.4. more years of schooling leads to greater knowledge and social participation

3.5. Employment

3.5.1. college will lead to greater employment opportunities

3.5.2. large organizations require higher levels of education

3.6. Education and Mobility

3.6.1. contest mobility

3.6.1.1. more education leads to economic and socila mobility

3.7. Teacher behavior

3.7.1. teachers are instructors, disciplinarians, bureaucrats, employers, friends, confidants, educators, etc.

3.7.1.1. role strain

3.7.1.1.1. conflicting demands are placed on teachers

3.7.2. teachers are role models

3.7.3. teachers set standards

3.7.3.1. instructional leaders

3.7.4. influence student self-esteem and sense of effieciency

3.7.4.1. Rosenthal and Jacobson

3.7.4.1.1. teachers' expectations of students were found to directly influence student achievement

3.7.5. Attitudes of teachers toward their students may have a significant influence on student achievement and perceptions of self

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. Who they are and why they do what they do

4.2. Realism

4.2.1. Aristotle-leading proponent of realism 355 B.C.

4.2.1.1. Through studying the material world an individual can clarify or develop ideas

4.2.1.2. The material world or matter is real

4.2.1.3. matter exists independent of ideas

4.2.1.4. developed a systematic theory of logic

4.2.1.5. Reason the instrument to achieve the proper balance or moderation in their lives

4.2.2. empirical research

4.2.3. Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274)

4.2.3.1. Neo-Thomism

4.2.3.1.1. understanding truth

4.2.4. Francis Bacon (1561-1626)

4.2.4.1. Modern Realism

4.2.4.1.1. developed the inductive or scientific method of learning

4.2.4.1.2. John Locke (1632-1704)

4.2.5. Alfred North Whitehead (1861-1947)

4.2.5.1. Contemporary Realism

4.2.5.1.1. concerned with universal patterns

4.2.5.1.2. Bertrand Russell (1872-1970)

4.2.6. Goal of education

4.2.6.1. questions answered through the study of ideas, using dialectical method

4.2.6.2. help individuals understand and then apply the principles of science to help solve problems in the modern world

4.2.7. Role of the Teacher

4.2.7.1. steeped in basic academic disciplines in order to transmit to their students the knowledge necessary for the continuance of the human race, solid grounding in science, mathematics, and humanities, present ideas in a clear and consistent manner, demonstrate that there are definitive ways to judge works of art, music, poetry, and literature, enable students to learn objective methods of evaluating

4.2.8. Methods of Instruction

4.2.8.1. lecture and question/answer

4.2.8.1.1. material world holds the key to the ideal world

4.2.8.2. encourage questions that would help students grasp the ideal through specific characteristics

4.2.9. Curriculum

4.2.9.1. consist of basics such as science, math, reading, writing, and humanities

4.2.9.2. body of knowledge that is essential for the student to master in order to be part of society

4.2.9.2.1. survival of society

4.2.9.3. specific knowledge that helps students better understand their culture

5. Schools as Organizations

5.1. Federal U.S. Senate

5.1.1. Jeff Sessions

5.1.2. Richard Shelby

5.2. State Senate

5.2.1. Arthur Orr

5.2.2. 35 state senators

5.2.3. Counties: Morgan, Limestone, Madison

5.2.4. District 3

5.3. House of Representatives

5.3.1. 105 members for state

5.3.2. U.S. House of Representatives District 5

5.3.2.1. Mo Brooks

5.3.3. State House of Representatives

5.3.3.1. District 4

5.3.3.1.1. Micky Hamon (Limestone-Morgan)

5.3.3.2. District 7

5.3.3.2.1. Ken Johnson (Lawrence, Winston, Morgan)

5.3.3.3. District 8

5.3.3.3.1. Terri Collins ( Morgan)

5.3.3.4. District 9

5.3.3.4.1. Ed Henry ( Cullman, Morgan)

5.3.3.5. District 11

5.3.3.5.1. Randall Shedd ( Blount, Cullman, Morgan)

5.4. State Superintendent

5.4.1. Tommy Bice- announces retirement, retirement effective 3-31-2016, 39 years of service to public education, March 10th, 2016 announcing Interim Superintendent

5.4.2. Philip Cleveland- Interim State Superintendent announced 4-14-2016

5.5. Governor

5.5.1. Robert Bentley

5.5.1.1. President of the State Board of Education

5.6. Local Superintendent

5.6.1. Dr. Dan Brigman is taking the place of Dr. Ed Nichols who has agreed to stay on till 6-30-2016

5.6.2. Decatur has 2 high schools, 3 middle schools, 12 elementary schools, 3 alternative programs, and 8,650 students enrolled

5.7. Representative on State School Board

5.7.1. AL State Board of Education

5.7.1.1. District 6

5.7.1.1.1. Cynthia McCarty, Ph. D.

5.8. Local School Board

5.8.1. City of Decatur School Board Members

5.8.1.1. District 1

5.8.1.1.1. Michele Gray King

5.8.1.2. District 2

5.8.1.2.1. Joe Propst

5.8.1.3. District 3

5.8.1.3.1. Karen Duke

5.8.1.4. District 4

5.8.1.4.1. Dwight Jett

5.8.1.5. District 5

5.8.1.5.1. Donnie Lane

5.8.2. Morgan County School Board

5.8.2.1. District 1

5.8.2.1.1. Billy Rhodes (West Morgan)

5.8.2.2. District 2

5.8.2.2.1. Adam Glenn ( Danville)

5.8.2.3. District 3

5.8.2.3.1. Mike Tarpley ( Falkville)

5.8.2.4. District 4

5.8.2.4.1. Paul Holmes ( Eva)

5.8.2.5. District 5

5.8.2.5.1. Jimmy Dobbs ( Priceville)

5.8.2.6. District 6

5.8.2.6.1. Tom Earwood ( Brewer-Cataco)

5.8.2.7. District 7

5.8.2.7.1. Jeff McLemore ( Lacey's Spring- Union Hill)

5.8.3. Superintendent of Education , Morgan County

5.8.3.1. Bill W. Hopkins

5.8.4. Board of Education President Decatur City

5.8.4.1. Karen Duke

5.9. Alabama State Board of Education

5.9.1. Governor Robert Bentley- President

5.9.2. Philip Cleveland, Ed.D-Interim Secretary and Executive Officer

5.9.2.1. Interim State Superintendent of Education

5.9.3. Jeffery Newman- Vice President, District 7

5.9.4. Yvette Richardson, Ed. D- President Pro Tem, District 4

5.9.5. Matthew Brown, J.D.- District 1

5.9.6. Betty Peters- District 2

5.9.7. Stephanie Bell- District 3

5.9.8. Ella B Bell- District 5

5.9.9. Cynthia McCarty, Ph.D-District 6

5.9.10. Mary Hunter- District 8

5.10. United Kingdom- The British Educational System

5.10.1. Either provided by local governmental authority (state schools) and are free or independent schools which charges fees to the parents

5.10.1.1. Overseen by United Kingdom's Department of Education and Department for Business, Innovation, and Skills

5.10.1.1.1. Local government authorities implement policies

5.10.2. Students go to school from age 5 to the last Friday i June of the school year they turn 18, the leaving age was raised in 2015 to their 18th birthday for those born after September 1, 1997.

5.10.2.1. Boys and girls attend full time education.

5.10.3. National Curriculum set in 1988, all state schools required to follow

5.10.3.1. Lessons last between 35 to 60 minutes for each subject, students will attend classes for about 5 hours a week and expected to undertake at least 6 hours of private study.

5.10.3.1.1. Outside lessons - Sports and extra-curricular activities are provided such as music, drama, and outdoor education. Students also go on field trips for educational purposes such as going to museums.

5.10.3.2. Provides framework for ages 5-18

5.10.3.2.1. 5 key stages

5.10.3.2.2. Key Stages within another framework

5.10.3.3. All students take a series of exams called the General Certifications of Secondary Education

5.10.3.3.1. usually in about 8 to 10 subjects which includes English and Math.

5.10.3.4. Postgraduate education is not automatically financed by the state.

5.10.3.4.1. Students pay their own tuition, receive scholarships, obtain loans, or they can get governmental help with tuition if in low-income situations.

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. Curriculum is an organized body of knowledge that represents political, social, and ideological interests.

6.2. Michael F.D. Young and Basil Bernstein

6.2.1. looked at curriculum as a reflection of the dominant interests in society and suggested that what is taught in schools is a critical component of the effects of schooling

6.3. Social Meliorist Curriculum

6.3.1. Philosphically social reconstructionist

6.3.1.1. developed in the 1930s out of writings of Dewey, who was concerned with the role of the schools in reforming society, as well as a response tom the growing dominance of the social efficiency curriculum.

6.3.2. George Counts and Harold Rugg

6.3.2.1. most influential of the social meliorists

6.3.2.1.1. schools should change society/ help solve its fundamental problems

6.3.2.2. School curriculum should teach students to think and help solve societal problems/ change society

6.3.3. precursor to what is called contemporary critical curriculum theory

6.3.3.1. Maxine Greene and Paulo Freire

6.3.3.1.1. the role of curriculum in moving students to become aware of societal problems and active in changing the world

6.3.4. The social efficiency curriculum resulted in the organization of the curriculum into distinct tracks

6.3.4.1. strong classification between academic and vocational curricula

6.3.4.1.1. students taking courses in one area or another or weak classification - students taking courses in both areas

6.3.4.2. traditionalists support strong classification between academic subjects as to transmit traditional cultural knowledge

6.3.5. the organization of the curriculum has been stratified according to the social class composition of the school

6.3.5.1. Public schools have had social efficiency curriculum with strong classification between academic and vocational subjects

6.3.6. The traditional humanist curriculum and the social efficiency curriculum has dominated  U.S. education

6.3.6.1. reflects the values and interests of professional educators

6.4. Sociologists of curriculum focus on what is taught and why it is taught

6.4.1. reflection of particular interests in society

6.4.1.1. Formal curriculum

6.4.1.1.1. subject matter to be learned

6.4.1.2. informal or hidden curriculum

6.4.1.2.1. what is left out of formal curriculum

6.4.1.3. Functionalists believe the role of schools is to integrate students into the existing social order- an order based on consensus and agreement

6.4.1.3.1. Emile Durkheim ( late 19th and early 20th century) - the role of schools in combating the social and moral breakdown initiated by modernization. As industrialization, secularization, and urbanization occured so did the breakdown of traditions which gave people the sense of community.

6.5. Modern Functionalists theory

6.5.1. developed in the U.S. through the works of Talcott Parsons and Robert Dreeben

6.5.1.1. the role of schools is to prepare students for the increasingly complex roles required in society

6.5.1.1.1. democratic, meritocratic, and expert society

6.5.1.1.2. teaching students how to learn which is a skill vital in an increasingly technological society

6.5.1.1.3. society is one where individuals are rewarded based on achievement and competence

6.5.1.1.4. schools teach students to respect others, to respect differences, and to base their opinions on knowledge and not on traditions

6.6. Schools teach the general norms, values, and knowledge required for the maintenance and development of modern society.

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. In 2009, a man age 25 or older with a college degree earned $72,868 a year on average and a woman of the same earned $44,078

7.1.1. women are often rated as better students than men, drop out of school less, and have higher reading levels

7.1.2. males are better than females in mathematics

7.1.3. There are more woman attending post-secondary institutions than men

7.2. The educational differences between men and women have been reduced in the last 20 years.

7.2.1. 86.6% of males graduated high school and 30.1% received a bachelor's degree, 87.6% of females graduated high school, 29.8% received a bachelor's degree (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2012)

7.3. The Condition of Education

7.3.1. social class is related to educational attainment and achievement

7.3.2. level of parental education is an indicator of socioeconomic status

7.4. The Coleman Study

7.4.1. 1966

7.4.1.1. Sociologist James Coleman

7.4.1.1.1. received grant to study the relationship between organizational characteristics of schools and student achievement

7.4.1.1.2. differences between schools were not particularly important in determining student outcomes when compared to the differences in student-body compositions between schools

7.4.2. 1982

7.4.2.1. James Coleman and colleagues at the University of Chicago

7.4.2.1.1. compared the average test scores of public school and private school sophomores

7.4.2.1.2. private schools were more effective than public schools because they place more  emphasis on academic activities and enforce discipline consistent with achievement

7.4.3. where a student goes to school is often related to race and socioeconomic background

7.4.3.1. racial and socioeconomic composition of a school has a greater effect on student achievement than an individual's race or class

7.4.4. Schools that are more academically oriented are better learning environments for students

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. Functionalists believe that the role of schools is to provide a fair and meritocratic selection process for sorting out the best and brightest individuals regardless of background

8.1.1. a just society is one where individual talent and hard work based on universal principles of evaluation are more important than characteristics based on particular methods of evaluation  - based on individual differences and not group differences

8.1.2. unequal educational outcomes are the result of unequal educational opportunities

8.1.2.1. Functionalists focus on attempts to provide equality of opportunity and to ensure a meritocratic system

8.2. School-centered or within-school explanations

8.2.1. centered on factors within the school, such as teachers and teaching methods, curriculum, ability grouping and curriculum tracking, school climate, and teacher expectations

8.2.1.1. 1980s, educational researchers examined the myriad processes within schools that explain the sources of unequal academic achievement- research focused on both between and within- school processes

8.3. Student-centered or extra-school explanations

8.3.1. centered on factors outside the school, such as family, the community, the culture of the group, the peer group, and the individual student

8.3.1.1. functionalists tend to support extra-school explanations because these provide support for the view that the schooling process is somewhat meritocratic and that educational inequalities are caused by factors outside the schooling process

8.4. School financing

8.4.1. Jonathan Kozol

8.4.1.1. compared public schools in affluent suburbs with public schools in poor inner cities, documented the differences in funding, called for equalization in school financing

8.4.2. Public schools are financed through local, state, and federal sources

8.4.2.1. majority of funds comes from state and local taxes- property taxes being the most significant source

8.4.3. affluent communities are able to provide more per-student spending than poorer communities

8.4.4. individual states have taken on the responsibility of attempting to decrease inequalities in school financing

8.4.5. Federal aid is controversial

8.4.5.1. Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965- fairest and most progressive system of school financing- equal opportunity regardless of residence

8.4.5.2. education is a state and local matter - federal financing would threaten local decision-making

8.4.5.3. schools should be financed through federal income taxes

8.5. tracking viewed as an important- students separated based on ability and to ensure the most qualified receive the type of education required to prepare them for society's most essential positions

8.5.1. track placement is fair and meritocratic- based on ability and hard work

8.5.1.1. differences in academic outcomes often due to the differences in school climate, expectations, pedagogic practices, and curriculum between tracks

8.5.1.1.1. teacher perceptions of students and their abilities have an impact on what is taught, how it is taught, and student performance

8.6. Feminist scholarship on schooling has attempted to understand the ways in which the schools limit the educational and life chances of women

8.6.1. gender differences- how men and women see the world, their cultural causes, and the role of schools in perpetuating or eliminating them

8.6.1.1. Carol Gilligan- psychologist at Harvard's Graduate School of Education- most influential feminist scholars working in the area of gender differences

8.6.1.1.1. call for more gender-fair curriculum

8.6.1.2. curriculum materials stereotype the roles of men and women - omitting significant aspects of women's history and women's lives

8.6.1.3. hidden curriculum reinforces traditional gender roles and expectations through classroom organization, instructional practices, and classroom interactions

8.6.1.3.1. males dominate classroom discussion and receive more attention

8.6.1.4. women typically teach elementary and men typically teach secondary grades- view that men hold positions of authority

8.7. multideminsional theory of education and inequality

8.7.1. schools help reproduce inequality- only part of the process affecting social stratification

8.7.1.1. students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds face significantly different problems in their communities due to factors  such as racism, poverty, and other societal and insitutional processes

9. Educational Reform

9.1. Teacher Education

9.1.1. the emergence and development of teacher education was a response to the failure of schools

9.1.1.1. National Education Association (NEA)

9.1.1.2. American Federation of Teachers (AFT)

9.1.2. education and training was a good starting point for analysis

9.1.3. 3 major points

9.1.3.1. lack of rigor and intellectual demands in teacher education programs

9.1.3.2. attract and retain competent teacher candidates

9.1.3.3. reorganize the academic and professional components of teacher education programs at both the baccalaureate and post- baccalaureate levels

9.1.4. the Carnegie and Holmes reports attracted the most public response and became symbolic of the teacher education reform movement

9.1.4.1. improvements in teacher education were necessary preconditions for improvements in education

9.1.4.2. restructuring of schools and the teaching profession, the elimination of the undergraduate education major, the recruitment of minorities into the teaching profession, and the increase of standards in teacher education and in teaching

9.1.4.3. focused on the relationship between university-based teacher education, the professional lives of teachers, and the structure of the schools

9.1.4.4. raising the intellectual soundness of teacher education, creating career ladders for teachers, developing entry- level requirements into the profession, linking schools of education at the university level to schools, and improving schools for students and teachers

9.1.5. John Goodlad

9.1.5.1. importance of rewarding teachers for their work

9.1.6. Linda Darling-Hammond

9.1.6.1. recent leaders of the teacher education reform

9.1.6.1.1. improve teacher preparation

9.1.6.1.2. fix teacher recruitment

9.1.6.1.3. reward teacher knowledge and skill

9.1.7. Teach for America (TFA) and the New Teacher Project ( NTP)

9.1.7.1. recruit high- performing college graduates for immediate entry into under served urban and rural schools

9.1.7.2. TFA founded in 1990s by Wendy Kopp

9.1.7.2.1. largest alternative teacher education program

9.2. Full Service and Community Schools

9.2.1. educate not only the child, but also the whole community

9.2.1.1. 3 models of community-based reforms

9.2.1.1.1. Dryfoos's model of full service schools

9.2.1.1.2. Canada's Harlem Children's Zone

9.2.1.1.3. Newark's Broader Bolder Approach

9.2.2. focus on meeting students' and their families educational, physical, psychological, and social needs

9.2.2.1. offer adult education, health clinics,recreation facilities, after-school programs, mental health services, drug and alcohol programs, job placement, and training programs, and tutoring services

9.2.3. designed to target and improve at-risk neighborhoods , prevent problems, and provide support

9.2.3.1. repair the larger social and social problems of society as a means of improving public education