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1.1. Definition-Assessments used to are used to aid educators in understanding the causes for student performance. They help teachers identify a student's strengths and weaknesses.

1.2. Advantages-Diagnostic assessments help to give a teacher a good starting point and help to formulate a good plan in regards to planning lessons based on her/his students strengths and weaknesses.

1.3. Disadvantages-Disadvantages are that a diagnostic test may only help a teacher plan at the beginning of a year/unit. It does provide a good starting point but it is up to the teacher to plan accordingly as the year/unit progresses.

1.4. I consider this to be an assessment for learning. Diagnostic assessments can be a great guide for a teacher and help them to prepare properly for their students to learn in a way that they need and a way that suits them.

1.5. 1st Grade Example:Having students read a grade level appropriate book to their teacher for a few minutes.


2.1. Definition-Assessments used for learning. These include a wide variety of methods that teachers use to conduct in-process evaluations of student comprehension, learning needs, and academic progress during a lesson, unit, or course. Formative assessments help teachers identify concepts that students are struggling to understand, skills they are having difficulty acquiring, or learning standards they have not yet achieved so that adjustments can be made to lessons, instructional techniques, and academic support.

2.2. Advantages-There are many advantages to formative assessments. Formative assessments provide teachers with a great way to check for understanding and comprehension. Based on these assessments, teachers can and should adjust their lessons to meet the needs of their students on daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly basis.

2.3. Disadvantages-One possible disadvantage is that too many formative assessments can take up a lot of time. There is a fine balance there of really utilizing formative assessments but not taking too long to do so. You still want to leave enough time to complete the lesson.

2.4. I consider this to be an assessment for learning. I feel this way because formative assessments are critical in guiding learning for students and preparing them to master a standard.

2.5. 1st Grade Example:An informal formative assessment would be to ask the class what they know about graphs at the beginning of a graphing unit.


3.1. Definition:Summative assessments are used to evaluate student learning, skill acquisition, and academic achievement at the conclusion of a defined instructional period

3.2. Advantages:The advantages of summative assessments are that they let the students and teacher know what was learned. In doing this, summative assessments help to inform a teacher how effective their instruction was. Also, they can help to let students know that they are prepared for their next academic challenge.

3.3. Disadvantages:Because formative assessment are an ending assessment teachers may realize that their students don't understand whatever concept they were teaching as well as they thought they did. Often times, it's hard to fix anything at that point. Also, there is a lot of controversy about the fairness of high stakes summative assessments. For example, poor summative assessment results can lead a poor review of a teacher.

3.4. Summative assessments are an assessment of learning. They are a final assessment, often times a test that shows what a students has learned over the course of a unit/year.

3.5. 1st Grade Example:The final spelling inventory test given at the end of the year.


4.1. Definition:Performance-based testing is an alternative to standardized tests that is designed to encompass a better overall representation of student progress including looking at the effectiveness of teacher lesson plans, worksheets and study skills

4.2. Advantages:Assesses the scope of a broader knowledge of a subject rather than just testing their ability to answer a selection of questions. Helps to enable a student and make them more responsible for their demonstration of learning.

4.3. Disadvantages:It can be hard to implement in a large class setting due to lack of time and resources.

4.4. Performance based testing is an assessment of learning. It is a way to test understanding at the end of unit or of a school year.

4.5. 1st Grade Example:An end of a unit activity where students create a poster to compare and contrast an area that has recycling vs an area that doesn't have recycling.


5.1. Definition:A high-stakes test is any test used to make important decisions about students, educators, schools, or districts, most commonly for the purpose of accountability.

5.2. Advantages:Proponent of would say high high stakes testing holds teachers accountable and motivates students to perform better. They would also say that it creates high expectations.

5.3. Disadvantages:There are many disadvantages to high stakes testing. Maybe the biggest one is they normally create a lot of stress. Also, they can reflect very poorly on teachers. Teachers are more inclined to "teach to the test" rather than teaching other important skills. Can diminish the overall quality of teaching and learning for disadvantaged students.

5.4. This is an assessment of learning. High stakes assessments are usually based on standardized tests at the end of school year.

5.5. 1st Grade Example:A student being held back a grade because they scored really low on a end of the year test.


6.1. Definition:Portfolio assessment is an evaluation tool used to document student learning through a series of student-developed artifacts. It gives both teachers and students a controlled space to show work that documents learning.

6.2. Advantages:Serves as a good alternative to standard tests. Research has shown that students benefit greatly from an assessment that goes beyond letter grades. Students tend to take ownership and responsibility of their portfolio.

6.3. Disadvantages:Some students may prefer standardized tests to portfolios. Some teachers may say it can be time consuming to create portfolios.

6.4. I would consider this an assessment of learning. The creation of the portfolio and the review of it measures what a student has learned.

6.5. 1st Grade Example:A student's end of the year portfolio of something they created for a math project, a personal narrative they wrote, and a poster they created about weather.


7.1. Definition:Authentic assessment is a type of assessment in which students use their understanding of a subject to solve real world situations and problems. It provides a way for students to show an authentic understanding of something rather than showing proficiency taking a test.

7.2. Advantages:Beneficial for special education learners because it allows them to show their knowledge in a variety of ways. A way to integrate higher order thinking skills.

7.3. Disadvantages:Can be a harder way for a teacher to assess. Results are pretty subjective. It takes longer than a standard pen and paper test as well.

7.4. I would consider this to be an assessment of learning. It is an assessment that would culminate a unit of study.

7.5. 1st Grade Example:Students working on a group project where they create a diorama and then present it to the class.


8.1. Definition:Students assess themselves. They are encouraged to take a critical look at their own work. It creates an opportunity for students to build higher order thinking skills.

8.2. Advantages:It gives students a chance to give more thought to their work. Can also give students a better sense of ownership.

8.3. Disadvantages:It is time consuming to correctly structure this, especially for younger students. Students will typically need some practice doing this which can also be time consuming.

8.4. To me, this could be used as both an assessment for learning and assessment of learning depending on when and how a teacher used it. In the primary grades though, I think it should be used only as a formative assessment. I wouldn't want to give younger kids that responsibility of a summative assessment.

8.5. 1st Grade Example:Students are told to take a critical look a personal narrative writing they did and pay close attention to spelling and punctuation.


9.1. Definition:This is an assessment where classmates assess eachother's work. It can be used to teach students about the assessment process.

9.2. Advantages:It gets students to do some higher order thinking. Can also get students to take a more critical look at their own work.

9.3. Disadvantages:Tricky in the primary grades because you want students to take this seriously and be responsible about it.

9.4. I consider this an assessment of learning. Gives students a chance to reflect on their own work as well as peer work.

9.5. 1st Grade Example:Students reviewing a partners writing and then giving feedback.

10. References

10.1. http://www.teachprimary.com/learning_resources/view/using-peer-assessment-in-the-primary-classroom

10.2. http://www.spfk12.org/cms/lib07/NJ01001501/Centricity/Domain/9/Self-Assessment%20Through%20Rubrics%20-%20Andrade%20-%20December%202007_January%202008.pdf

10.3. http://oureverydaylife.com/definition-authentic-assessment-useful-students-special-needs-6725.html

10.4. http://www.education.com/reference/article/authentic-assessment/

10.5. http://www.education.com/reference/article/portfolio-assessment/

10.6. http://edglossary.org/high-stakes-testing/

10.7. http://www.teach-nology.com/currenttrends/alternative_assessment/performance_based/

10.8. http://www.teach-nology.com/currenttrends/alternative_assessment/performance_based/

10.9. http://oureverydaylife.com/advantages-disadvantages-formative-assessment-28407.html

10.10. http://edglossary.org/formative-assessment/