Discrimination in Canada throughout the 20th Century

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Discrimination in Canada throughout the 20th Century by Mind Map: Discrimination in Canada throughout the 20th Century

1. Asian

1.1. Immigration Act

1.1.1. enabled

1.1.1.1. the Department of Immigration to deal with undesirable immigrants"   by providing a means of control according to the Minister of Interior

1.1.1.1.1. by

1.2. Chinese

1.2.1. laws of

1.2.1.1. Federal Chinese Exclusion Act in 1885 that imposed a head tax of $50

1.2.1.1.1. was increased to

1.2.1.2. excluding "any immigrant of any Asiatic race" except agriculturalists, farm labourers, female domestic servants, and wife and children of a person legally in Canada in January 1923 by Order in Council

1.2.1.2.1. lead to

1.2.1.3. Order in Council prohibiting the landing of "any immigrant of any Asiatic race", except wives and minor children of Canadian citizens (and few Asians could get citizenship).

1.2.2. did not

1.2.2.1. receive voting privileges and were prevented from obtaining Canadian citizenship until 1947

1.3. Indians

1.3.1. were

1.3.1.1. "Unsuited to live in the climatic conditions of British Columbia and were a serious disturbance to industrial and economic conditions." according to Sir Wilfrid Laurier

2. Japanese

2.1. had limited emigration

2.1.1. in 1907 when the Canadian government delegation to japan concludeda "gentleman's agreement"

2.1.1.1. meant that

2.1.1.1.1. the Japanese government would limit emigration from Japan to 400 people a year

2.2. faced

2.2.1. prejudice from Anglo-Canadians and British Colombians and recieved no voting rights, perceived as a threat to BC's ethnic purity

2.2.2. War Measures Act after WW2 started

2.2.2.1. which caused

2.2.2.1.1. 1200 Japanese fishing boats to be seized by the Canadian Navy

2.2.2.1.2. Japanese newspapers and schools forced to close down

2.2.2.2. Order in Council requiring them to renounce their former citizenship before being naturalized in 1931

2.2.2.2.1. effectively

2.2.2.3. lead to

2.2.2.3.1. the internment of 23 000 people who were moved to labour camps.

2.2.2.3.2. all male Japanese-Canadians between 18 and 45 being removed from  100 mile-wide-zone along the coast of BC

2.2.2.3.3. the confiscation of cars, radios and cameras along with the imposing of a curfew and properties and belongings forced to be turned over to Custodian of Enemy Alien Property as a “protective measure”

3. African

3.1. In 1910 Edmonton Municipal Council called on Ottawa to prevent black immigration.

3.1.1. lead to

3.1.1.1. an order in council being drafted prohibiting the landing of "any immigrant belonging to the Negro race, which race is deemed unsuitable to the climate and requirements of Canada".

3.1.1.1.1. along with

3.1.1.1.2. meaning

3.2. were

3.2.1. forced into all black segregated schools with the Separate School Act of 1850

3.2.1.1. which

3.2.1.1.1. existed until the 1960s

3.2.2. ordered to stay out of public parks, theatres and swimming pools in Alberta in 1914

3.2.3. seen as "backward, ignorant, immoral, criminal and an economic threat"

3.2.4. used as sources of cheap labour and were paid less than white Canadians

3.2.5. the most commonly targeted racial group in 2010, hate crimes against Blacks accounted for about 4 in 10 racially motivated incidents

3.3. in WW1

3.3.1. many black Canadians wished to enlist and fight in the war

3.3.1.1. however

3.3.1.1.1. could enlist in battalions only at the discretion of commanding officers

3.3.1.1.2. they were rejected and told it was  "a white man's war"

4. European

4.1. Ukrainian

4.1.1. were

4.1.1.1. interned between 1914 and 1920 during WW1

4.1.1.1.1. under the

4.1.1.2. seen as Enemy Aliens

4.1.1.2.1. which were

4.1.1.2.2. because

4.2. Germans

4.2.1. were

4.2.1.1. Triple Alliance allied country in WW1 (against Canada)

4.2.1.1.1. seen as

4.2.2. During WW2

4.2.2.1. Canada denied sanctuary to most German refugee applicants from the Third Reich

4.2.2.1.1. only acccepted

4.2.2.2. the Canadian government arrested and interned 837 German Canadian farmers, workers and club members denounced or deemed disloyal

4.2.2.3. the Minister of Justice could detain anyone acting "in any manner prejudicial to the public safety or the safety of the state."

4.2.2.3.1. lead to

4.2.2.4. Canadian government used propaganda to showcase Germans as monsters and all Nazis

5. Aboriginals

5.1. laws of

5.1.1. The Indian Act first passed in 1876

5.1.1.1. created to

5.1.1.1.1. assimilate aboriginals to the mainstream/non-aboriginal culture through various ways

5.1.2. Residential Schools

5.1.2.1. which were

5.1.2.1.1. run by Christian, Roman Catholic  and  also Anglican Churches

5.1.2.1.2. created to assimilate aboriginal children to the mainstream culture/language/religion

5.1.2.1.3. compulsory for aboriginal children  by 1920

6. Religion

6.1. Jewish

6.1.1. during WW2

6.1.1.1. the Canadian immigration policy was anti-Semitic

6.1.1.1.1. didn't accept

6.1.1.1.2. and rejected

6.1.1.1.3. lead to

6.1.1.1.4. highlighted when

7. Gender/Sexuality

7.1. Women

7.1.1. in the World Wars

7.1.1.1. had to take over the men's jobs in factories while they were away in the wars

7.1.1.1.1. but

7.1.2. “Continuous Passage Rule” created in 1908 excluded immigration of people who could not make a direct journey to Canada on one tank of gas

7.1.2.1. applied in

7.1.2.1.1. 1914 Komagatu Maru incident where 376 Indians arrived in Vancouver on boat and were forced to return

7.1.2.2. also

7.1.2.2.1. the amount of money an immigrant was required to possess went from $25 to $200 to make it even harder to migrate

7.1.2.3. and

7.1.2.3.1. Section 38 which allowed the government to prohibit landing of immigrants  "belonging to any race deemed unsuited to the climate or requirements of Canada, or of immigrants of any specified class, occupation or character".

7.1.3. were not

7.1.3.1. given same legal rights as fathers regarding their children

7.1.3.2. given the same job or education opportunities as men

7.1.3.2.1. were only supposed to stay at home and take care of their families (cook, clean etc)

7.1.3.2.2. in the early 1900's, teaching was the only profession open to women that lead to a pension

7.1.3.2.3. Out of 34 countries in the OECD, Canada had the 7th higher gender wage gap in 2014

7.1.4. were

7.1.4.1. opressed through different government laws and acts

7.1.4.1.1. including

7.2. Homosexuals

7.2.1. tested with "Fruit Machines"

7.2.1.1. which were

7.2.1.1.1. devices developed in Canada that was supposed to be able to identify gay men through tests

7.2.1.2. by

7.2.1.2.1. the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP), and the military

7.2.2. Changes to the Criminal Code in 1948 and 1961 were used to label gay men as "criminal sexual psychopaths" and "dangerous sexual offenders."

7.2.2.1. could lead to

7.2.2.1.1. indeterminate prison sentences