Pre Nazi Regime

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Pre Nazi Regime by Mind Map: Pre Nazi Regime

1. Weimar

1.1. Treaty

1.1.1. 5 main clauses

1.1.1.1. clause 231 - blame for war and all its destruction

1.1.1.2. Army made to a fraction of size

1.1.1.3. reperation costs

1.1.1.4. Loss of land

1.1.1.5. League of nation set up

1.2. Reasons they're disliked

1.2.1. Blamed for all the bad side of treaty (known as november criminals

1.2.2. Rebbelions occured due to it - spartacist, kapp putsch, munich putsch

1.2.2.1. Kapp - Dr. Kapp marches into berlin and sets himself up as head of govt. Former soldiers who hated treaty. The govt. simply moved so it failed.

1.2.2.2. Spartacist  1919 - communist who wanted uprising. poorly organised seize of berlin which was crushed by freikorps.

1.2.2.3. Munich Putsch - hitler/nazis

1.2.3. HyperinflatioN

1.3. 1923

1.3.1. Hyperinflation

1.3.1.1. Germany prints more banknotes to cover reperations. Value of money goes down. Pensions, saving, wages all become worthless. Govt blamed for all losses and struggles of time

1.3.1.1.1. Govt introducenew currency, Rentenmark. Obtain loan to get money from US. 1924 Dawes Plan

1.3.2. Invasion Of Ruhr Jan

1.3.2.1. Germans didnt keep up with reparations so french and belgian troops march into ruhr (legal under treaty). Factories and industry stop. Germans in the ruhr respond with passive resistance.

1.3.2.1.1. Stresemann calls off resistance. Germans criticise France. Econcomy recovers and france withdraw.

1.3.3. Munich Putsch November

1.3.3.1. Right wing extremists plot putsch. Nazis attempt a revolution in munich.

1.3.3.1.1. Putsch crushed by army. Hitler imprisoned.

1.4. Stressemann

1.4.1. Info

1.4.1.1. Chancellor. Diplomat - Locarno treaty. League of nations. Young plan.

1.4.1.1.1. Locarno - France, Germany, Belgium would all agree to peace and should any break peace the country being attacked would be allied by UK and Italy.

1.4.1.1.2. League of nations - Stressemann joins Germany in 1926. Sets up Germany in a group that promotes peace.

1.4.1.1.3. extremist parties brought in more and more people as people sought out people to blame and people to ally with.

1.4.1.1.4. Young Plan 1929 - Set up to reduce costs of reparations by 20% and prolong time. Giving Germany more likelihood to actually be able to pay

1.4.1.1.5. Dawes plan 1924 - US lend Germans 800 million marks.

1.5. Effects of 1929 Wall Street Crash

1.5.1. 6 million unemployed

1.5.2. Loss of homes

1.5.3. Govt blamed for publics problems.

1.5.4. Loss of faith in Wiemar.

2. Early Nazi party

2.1. hitlers beliefs

2.1.1. weimar had caused germanys problema

2.1.2. nazis would make germany strong by overturing treaty of versailles

2.1.3. great military by increasing army

2.1.4. Aryans were a supreme race. Blamed inferior races for problems,primarily jews. Germans needed to be rid of jewish blood before they could become master race.

2.1.5. Believed in smaller class divides, tried to group everyones opinions and rights into a large bulk designed to improve germany.

2.2. 1930 election

2.2.1. Working class turned to communist parties due to hope of even spread wealth.

2.2.2. Middle class turn to nazis due to promises of strong leaders and overturning of versailles.

2.2.3. nazis become second largest party with 107 seats.

2.2.4. 1930 second vote

2.2.4.1. Von papen appointed and hopes to gain support of parties

2.2.4.1.1. Nazis win and become largest party with 230 seats.

2.3. 7 reasons for Nazi Success

2.3.1. 1. Deppression

2.3.1.1. Causes people to turn to extremists. Weimar appear to not be able to help. Nazis promise to make germany prosper.

2.3.2. Nazi Appeal

2.3.2.1. Promised to overturn treaty and make germany powerful. Promised to end depression. Offered work adn hope. Offered peopl to blame for problmes (jews).

2.3.3. Propaganda

2.3.3.1. Promise of worka dn good lifes. Normal propaganda + extreme e.g. hitler attending all nazi rallies, large rallies to impress, false promises.

2.3.4. Violence

2.3.4.1. Nazis used SA ro intimidate opposition and this attracted some/intimidated others to join.

2.3.5. Fincancial backing

2.3.5.1. Set out for support of wealthy businessman. Won support of rich through promising trade unions and to keep wages low.

2.3.6. Hitler

2.3.6.1. He was a very good speaker and inspired people. Portrayed as strong leader germany needed.

2.3.7. Weakness of weimar.

2.3.7.1. Govt failed to keep control and lost support through errors. Hitler saw this and played it to his advantage.

2.4. Reichstag Fire

2.4.1. communist supposedly sets fire to reichstag. In aftermath hitler manipulated hindenburg to allow him to arrest any oppostition he deemed a threat. The nazis used this to make life difficult for the oppostion.

2.5. Enabling Act 1933

2.5.1. Gave hitler power to make laws without democratic vote. (only passed due to fear from voters of intimidation by SS and SA nearby at the time of voting).

2.6. Using enabling act hitler makes new laws

2.6.1. Nazi officilas in charge of all states.

2.6.2. Abolished trade unions and made strikes illegal.

2.6.3. No other political parties could be run or created. Germany become one party state.

2.7. night of long knifves 1934

2.7.1. SS execute over 400 SA members to get businessmen and army on his side.

2.8. Hindenburg Dies hitler becomes Fuhrer 1934

3. Hitler as Fuhrer

3.1. Controls society

3.1.1. SS

3.1.1.1. An elite group of utterly loyal soldiers.

3.1.2. Gestapo

3.1.2.1. Track down opposition and send them to concentration camps

3.1.3. Numbers

3.1.3.1. They had informers throught country

3.1.4. Concentration camps

3.1.4.1. initially set upto keep political opponents in and to prevent them casuing harm.

3.1.5. Propaganda

3.1.5.1. Used propaganda to make people believe that their policies were good.

3.1.6. Cencorship

3.1.6.1. Prevented criticism of nazis.

3.1.6.1.1. Radio was used to brainwash people and were sold in huge numbers. Newspapers and tv all controlled by nazis. All bias to nazis. Cinemas showed nazi propagandain form of normal films. Books by jews etc destroyed. Arts forced to praise hitler and nazis.

3.2. Opposition

3.2.1. Faith opposed hitler and were agianst racism and killing of lessers.

3.2.2. Edelweiss pirates were youths who violently objected nazis.

3.2.3. 1944 hitler is bombed yet survives

3.2.4. trade unionists often are more socialist/communist.

3.2.4.1. Hitler abolishes trade unions in 1933 and sets up German Labour Front 1933

3.2.4.1.1. control wafes, hours etc. This was to control the workers in germany and to ensure everything is to nazi liking.

3.3. Young people

3.3.1. Rducation

3.3.1.1. All teachers were nazis. Whole school system was designed to expose and normalise nazi ideas to students Boys got military, girls got domestic. Children taught arians were superior. Hitler shouldnt be questioned as he was amzing, jews were evil. New subjects such as race studies. Maths, science etc taught in military wat or to show aryans to be superior. History was re written to show nazi beliefs were good eg bad treaty, evil jews.

3.3.2. Groups

3.3.2.1. Hitler youth compluslosry. Set up to train men for war and mothers for childcare etc.

3.4. Women

3.4.1. Womens roles were to be mothers. Children, church and cooking.

3.4.1.1. Women were dehumanised and lost many rights. Sexism became more promimnent again.

3.4.2. tTo increase birthrate hutler offered loans to women to get out of work and have children

3.4.3. Only aryans could have children. Jews weren't offered marriage loans, hereditary people were sterilised.

3.4.4. Birth rate rises. By start fo war more women in work than in 1933. Many children began growing up around nazi ideals.

3.5. Jews

3.5.1. Seen as lesser due to being evil etc.

3.5.1.1. Nuremberg laws 1935 made it illegal for jews to marry germans.

3.5.1.2. 3 stages of persecution

3.5.1.2.1. isolation

3.5.1.2.2. Containment

3.5.1.2.3. Extermination

3.5.1.3. Night of broken glass 1938

3.5.1.3.1. destruction of 7500 jewish shops. Jews expelled from schools and public places

4. Hitlers plans for the future

4.1. Ideas for germany

4.1.1. Make germany self sufficient

4.1.2. Build up army

4.1.3. To make germany the superpower in europe and to reclaim lands lost from treaty.

4.1.4. Reduce unemployment

4.2. How?

4.2.1. Appoint Hjalmar Scacht. Sets up New Plan. Creates jobs to lower unemployment. Helps bolster economy through trade.

4.2.2. New plan enables hitler to stablalise economy and to get back arms. Sets up four year plan. MEant that germany could make and maintain resources in event of 'siege'.

4.2.3. Didnt fully come to play by time war starts in 1939 but was a factor in germanys war effort.