Student Assessments.  By: John-David Robb

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Student Assessments.  By: John-David Robb by Mind Map: Student Assessments.  By: John-David Robb

1. diagnostic

1.1. Definition: Diagnostic assessment is used to identify a student's needs and abilities and the student's readiness to acquire the knowledge and skills outlined in the curriculum expectations.

1.1.1. Purpose Used to get a base understanding of students learning needs and habits prior to introducing the start of curriculum.:

1.1.1.1. Advantages and disadvantages: This form of assessment provides the base standard for future assessments.  Assessment allows for more in depth and individualized learning plans through differentiated learning/instruction.  Disadvantages would come from generating the incorrect baseline or PM which would impact future learning in a negative manner.

1.1.1.1.1. assessment of learning or for learning:  This is an assessment FOR learning as it represents the starting base point for which other areas of learning would be assessed in the future.

2. formative

2.1. Definition:  Formative assessment refers to a wide variety of methods that teachers use to conduct in-process evaluations of student comprehension, learning needs, and academic progress during a lesson, unit, or course.

2.1.1. Purpose: Used to assist the Teacher with understanding the needs of his or her students as an information piece on how the students learn inside the classroom.

2.1.1.1. Advantages and disadvantages: One advantage for this form of assessment is that it allows the teacher to make changes to their lessons on the fly when needed through the information they will have gathered from previous lessons.  Disadvantage of this type of assessing is that it is a continuous assessment which if the incorrect information is gathered could result in a decrease in student learning.

2.1.1.1.1. assessment of learning or for learning: This is an assessment OF learning as it allows the Teacher to have multiple check up time to ensure the students are staying on track in their learning.

3. summative

3.1. Definition:  Summative assessment (or summative evaluation) refers to the assessment of participants where the focus is on the outcome of a program. This contrasts with formative assessment, which summarizes the participants' development at a particular time.

3.1.1. Purpose:  Used at the end of a unit, it allows the Teacher to see exactly what the students has learned and retained throughout their current unit.  This assessment will also aid as a road map leading into the next unit.

3.1.1.1. Advantages and disadvantages: When used properly, these types of assessments can demonstrate the learning retention of a student through the administration of tests.  They also allow for schools to be ranked based on performance and as such, may influence future funding.  A disadvantage would come from the added pressure a student feels to perform well on % based testing which could negatively impact the learning of a student.  One other disadvantage is that this form of assessment does not always show exactly the knowledge a student has gained as it is very one directional in its delivery.

3.1.1.1.1. assessment of learning or for learning:  This is assessment OF learning as it comes in the form of a unit test that shows the Teacher the cumulative knowledge gained by their students.

4. performance-based

4.1. Definition: Performance-based assessment is a way for students to demonstrate knowledge, skills, and material that they've learned. Performance-based assessment measures how well students can apply or use what they know, often in real-world situations.

4.1.1. Purpose: These types of assessments are meant for students to be able to apply their learning through projects and similar situations which allow the Teacher to see and understand exactly what the students have retained in their learning.

4.1.1.1. Advantages and disadvantages: Advantage here is in how the students present the knowledge gained through a final presentation based on their current unit.  Disadvantage comes from complete inclusion given the different backgrounds of students in the class as well as the need to assess on an ongoing basis as oppose to a final grade point for each child.

4.1.1.1.1. assessment of learning or for learning: This type of assessment can be used as both as well as it allows for multiple assessments throughout the unit through the use of centres based on performance for successful completion.  Also it allows for the Teacher to assess based on a final project created through the different stages in smaller projects throughout the unit.

5. high-stakes

5.1. Definition: A high-stakes test is any test used to make important decisions about students, educators, schools, or districts, most commonly for the purpose of accountability.

5.1.1. Purpose: These assessments are used to help determine future funding in schools, weather that be an increase in funding or a reduction base on the results of the school.  For students the results of high stake assessments can mean scholarships and bursaries for future learning, awards through graduation.  In both cases, this type of assessment usually carries some type of publicity through local news agencies.

5.1.1.1. Advantages and disadvantages: Advantage comes from the assessment of Teacher based on the performance of their students.  Another would be in the high pressure situation that allows to see how the students handle such pressure and gives them the chance to overcome any challenges along the way.  A disadvantage would be in that the child might not be able to overcome those challenges and the total learning suffers based on these assessments.

5.1.1.1.1. assessment of learning or for learning: This is an assessment OF learning as it comes in the form of a test which serves to only show the retained knowledge from a student and not the actual learned knowledge from students throughout a given unit.

6. portfolio

6.1. Definition: Portfolio assessment is an evaluation tool used to document student learning through a series of student-developed artifacts.

6.1.1. Purpose: This assessment is a collection of work submitted by the students as a demonstrated series.  Most commonly used in art, it can show the growth of a student through the year culminating in a final presentation.

6.1.1.1. Advantages and disadvantages: One advantage is in seeing the growth of the student from the beginning of the unit right up to the final assignment which gives an overall picture to the Teacher as to how the student has grown.  It also can promote self reflection in the students learning and aid as a continued growth tool moving forward.  Disadvantage comes from the time needed to grade this assessment which could take away from other areas of the students education and feedback from the Teacher.

6.1.1.1.1. assessment of learning or for learning: Because a portfolio is generally a presentation that takes place at the end of a term, it clearly serves as an assessment OF learning giving little time throughout the term for the Teacher to assess, give feedback and allow for remedial work if it were so needed.

7. authentic

7.1. Definition: Authentic assessment is the measurement of "intellectual accomplishments that are worthwhile, significant, and meaningful," as contrasted to multiple choice standardized tests.

7.1.1. Purpose: Authentic assessment is used for the "real world" scenario as a tool for students to understand how this knowledge applies in their future adult lives.

7.1.1.1. Advantages and disadvantages:  One advantage is that this assessment allows to see retained knowledge in a real time situation through project use. Also, this type of assessment gives the teacher the opportunity to visually see exactly the areas that need to be tweaked for better learning.  A disadvantage is in the required time needed to assess which takes away from other forms of assessment.  Also, it may not give school districts a complete picture as to the learning environment of a school as a whole community.

7.1.1.1.1. assessment of learning or for learning: Can be used FOR learning and also an assessment OF learning in that the Teacher can assess throughout the unit and use the findings as a growth tool in teaching but also as a summative assessment at the end of a unit to gain a final grade for retained knowledge.

8. peer assessment/self-assessment

8.1. Definition:  Peer assessment, or self-assessment, is a process whereby students or their peers grade assignments or tests based on a teacher's benchmarks. The practice is employed to save teachers time and improve students' understanding of course materials as well as improve their metacognitive skills

8.1.1. Purpose: The purpose of the peer assessment is to allow the students the opportunity to learn and reflect on each others work and to grow as a learning community by seeing potential areas in their work for further development without negative response.  Self assessment allows for the students to reflect on the work they present and to realize any potential areas for self growth.

8.1.1.1. Advantages and disadvantages: An advantage from peer assessment is that the students would be better receptive to areas of growth when it comes from a peer as oppose to the Teacher.  Also, peer assessment allows for all students to grow as a community of learners.  A disadvantage would be that the students go a little easy of quite hard on each other in the assessment phase and thus have a negative impact on continued learning.  Self assessment advantages come in the form of self growth and gained understanding of what learning could and should look like.  A disadvantage would be that it is not taken seriously by the students and they simply give themselves a "good" mark with no room for growth.

8.1.1.1.1. assessment of learning or for learning: Peer assessment is a type OF learning in that it allows the students and the Teacher the opportunity to grow in their learning over the duration of the unit.  Self assessment is FOR learning as it gives the student the opportunity to look back on each stage of the learning and offers the chance for growth, understanding and when needed, change.

9. Resources and Citations: (n.d.). Retrieved June 19, 2016, from http://www.education.com/reference/article/portfolio-assessment/ (n.d.). Retrieved June 19, 2016, from http://edglossary.org/high-stakes-testing/

9.1. Resources and Citations: (n.d.). Retrieved June 19, 2016, from http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/extra/eng/ppm/ppm155.pdf           (n.d.). Retrieved June 19, 2016, from http://www.edutopia.org/practice/performance-based-assessment-engaging-students-chemistry

9.1.1. Resources and Citations: (2014, April 29). Retrieved June 19, 2016, from http://edglossary.org/formative-assessment/ (n.d.). Retrieved June 19, 2016, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Summative_assessment

9.1.1.1. Resources and Citations: (n.d.). Retrieved June 19, 2016, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peer_assessment (n.d.). Retrieved June 19, 2016, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Authentic_assessment