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semiconductor devices WHAT DO YOU THINK? COMMENTS ARE WELCOME by Mind Map: semiconductor devices  WHAT DO YOU THINK? COMMENTS ARE WELCOME

1. III-V

1.1. properties

1.2. applications

2. silicon

2.1. applications

2.1.1. mems/nems mechanical stress testing pressure sensor biomimetic mems sensor flow-related controll acceleration sensor: pull-in instability of paddle-type nems sensor

2.1.2. electronics transistor logic transistor

2.1.3. self-assembly milli to nano scale

2.2. properties

2.2.1. mechanical gauge factor: 200 young's modulus: 130-188 GPa

3. MoS2

3.1. properties

3.1.1. piezoelectricity: piezoelectric coefficient: e11 = 2.9 × 10–10 C m−1 piezoelectricity of singl layer mos2 for energy conversion and piezotronics

3.1.2. electrical screening bandgap: intrinsic direct 1.8 eV indirect bandgap 1.2 eV bilayer strain induced bandgap tuning mobility @ RT: 200 cm^2/Vs on/off ration: 1x10^8 doping electrical properties on hBN effect of interlayer coupling on electrical properties

3.1.3. mechanical thickness: 0.65nm mechanical pressure confinement effect strain effect on effective mass gauge factor bi-layer: 230 bulk: 200 uniaxial and biaxial strain wettability friction

3.1.4. optical electroluminescence raman spectroscopy MoS2 488nm laser

3.1.5. heat conductance: 7.45 W/mK @ 300K suspended monolayer: 34 W/mK suspended multilayer: 52 W/mK

3.1.6. chemical one layer of Mo -sandwiched between two layers of S by covlent bonding packed in hexagonal arrangement sheets held together by weak van der Waals interaction lattice constant:  3.160 Å

3.1.7. thermal

3.2. application

3.2.1. chemical vapor sensor (comparison with graphene devices)

3.2.2. transistor channel contacts injet printed Ag contacts CVD grown multilayer single layer flakes single layer flexible transistor on polyimide charge trapping at the interface thin film transistor strain sensing self-screened transistor with bottom graphene electrode transfer characteristics suspended transistor intrinsic origin of the hysteresis suspended mos2

3.2.3. supercondictivity

3.2.4. MEMS/NEMS membrane resonator nanopores open atom by atom direct and scalable CVD membranes hydrogen separation water desalination flexible MoS field-effect transistor for gate-tunable strain sensor bio/medicin review: bio sensors functionalication rection between mos2 and thiole sensors synthesis and sensor applications of mos2-based nanocomposites gas sensor tactile sensor for electronic skin bending response theory

3.2.5. sensing

3.2.6. supercapacitor MoS2-Graphene composite coin cell supercapasitor

3.2.7. heterostructure electric-field and strain-tunable mos2/h-bn/graphene vertical heterostructure review one-dimensional electrical contacts to mos2 heterostructure

3.3. contacting

3.3.1. graphene electrode

3.3.2. contact resistance

3.3.3. carrier transport at the metal-mos2 interface

3.3.4. metal contacts

3.3.5. vam der waals interaction and lattice mismetch at mos2/metal interfaces

3.3.6. chromium as ideal contact metal

3.4. transfer

3.4.1. wet etch method BOE etch spin-coat: ar-p 649.04 30s@1800rpm,2 etch SiO2 with BOE NaOH etch spin-coat: ar-p 649.04 30s@1800rpm,2 etch SiO2 with NaOH KOH etch spin-coat: ar-p 649.04 30s@1800rpm,2 cratch the corners of the chip place a drop of KOH etch sio2

3.4.2. ultrasound method

3.4.3. pdms stamp mos2 flake polymer free large-area transfer for transistors fragmented mos2

3.4.4. fast Seak and peal in water drop with Polysterene in Touluene polymer

3.4.5. exfoliation liquid phase exfoliation

4. hexagonal boron nitride (hBN)

4.1. porperties

4.1.1. impermeability to everything except to protons

5. carbon nanotubes

5.1. properties

5.2. applications

5.2.1. mems/nems switch pressure sensor pmma based

5.2.2. electronics transistor logic transistor

5.3. synthesis

6. graphene

6.1. transfer

6.1.1. wet-etch method dry transfer with spacer substrate copper on sio2 pattern graphene underetch copper leave graphene on sio2

6.1.2. cleaning dry-cleaning with active graphite polymer scaffolds thermal annealing at 300°C for 3 hours under UHV metal cleaning, crackless, wrinkleless acetic acid and methanol residue reduction

6.1.3. exfoliation on SiC liquid phase exfoliation polymer nanoparticles assisted exfoliation

6.1.4. nano imprint

6.1.5. glue on substrate epoxy

6.1.6. copper evaporation

6.1.7. carbon atom diffusion through copper

6.1.8. large area patterning transfer with holographic lithography

6.1.9. polymer assisted polymer free transfer with cellulose acetate dry PI polymer transfer (copper reuse) roll-to-roll transfer method pet assisted transfer method soak and peel method dry pdms stamp transfer pdms stamp with o2 plasma before stamp on cu foil: 30W, 15s O2 plasma enhance adhesion pdms transfer without pmma pdms remove by methylene chloride large area suspended graphene transfer with pdms low temperature, metal assisted dry thermal release tape vacuum assisted transfer -remove of adsorbants - use standard wet transfer pmma and ab-glue spin-coater assisted transfer to polymer substrate resiude fre pmma remove with ar+ ion beam

6.1.10. by oxidation-assited water intercalation

6.1.11. etch free-transfer transfer free suspended graphene electrochemical transfer method bubble method agarose gel method pdms assisted without pores electro-exfoliating grapene from graphite bubble transfer with polymer support with inclosed air bubble polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film dry-transfer dry transfer with bN selective dry transfer dry electrostatic method water-mediated and instataneous transfer

6.1.12. support free transfer with SAM modified substrate

6.1.13. wetting assisted transfer

6.1.14. polymer free transfer graphene growth on patterned mo and removal of ma with sulfuric acid with Ti as transfer layer removed with hf using hexane

6.2. properties

6.2.1. mechanical intrinsic strength: prestine graphene 90 - 121 GPa (30 N/m) defective graphene ~50 GPa (18 N/m) policrystalline young's modulus: prestine and cvd graphene 1 TPa Stretchability: 20% impermeability to everything but protons strain uniaxual strain - deformation uniaxial strain in bilayer graphene unisotropic phonon softening Thickness: 0.34 nm defect introduction through Argon irradiation crack propagation self healing of cracks fracture of graphene (review) wet adhesion adhesion strong adhesion to sio2 weak adhesion on pdms --> low surface energy temperature-dependent adhesion on a trench suspended <10nm thick graphene: spring constant: 1-5 N/m critical temp and radus for buckling topography small scale pull-in instability and vibration gauge factor exfoliated graphene cvd graphene

6.2.2. electrical high electron mobility on bulk suspended prestine at room temperature: 230000 cm2/Vs suspended low temperature: order of 1000000 cm2/Vs mobility extraction CVD graphene on hBN: 350000 cm^2/Vs CVD-graphene exfoliated screening on hBN electrical field electrostatic sheet resistance: 500 Ohm/square (wet transfer) multilayer depending on transfer band structure bandgap breakdown current density nanoribbons: width 16nm: 10^8 A/cm^2 effect of humidity on electrical properties effect of interlayer coupling on electrical properties surface electrical properties

6.2.3. optical transparency: mono layer 97.7% multilayer fine structure constant reflection: few layer: <0.1% > 10 layer: 2% absorption: 300 - 2500 nm peak at 270 nm photoresponse raman graphene 514nm and 633 nm laser absorption: 2.3%

6.2.4. piezoresistivity positive piezoconductive

6.2.5. chemical hexagonal honeycomb lattice of carbon atoms in sp2 hybridization remaining pz forms C-C pi bond two atom A and B unit cell superhydropobic graphene superhydrophobic to superhydrophilic intersurface interaction

6.2.6. thermal exfoliated graphene suspended heat conductivity: 5150 W/mK thermal conductvity of suspended graphene with defect graphene heat transport thermal expansion coefficient: -7 × 10−6 K−1 CVD-graphene suspended heat conductivity: 5150 W/mK

6.3. applications

6.3.1. mems/nems membrane pressure sensor switch accelerometer loudspeaker resonator memory device detection with local gate control electricity generation TMD growth on suspended graphene suspended graphene membrane fabrication with tunable structures strain sensor microphone fabrication bio and medicin characterization properties water desalination using nanoporous graphene piezoelectric strain gauge force sensor nano bots mechanical control of graphene on pyramidal structures mos2 chemical vapor sensor (comparison with graphene devices) hall sensor quantum hall effect transparent micro heater tactile sensing with array of graphene woven nanofabrics chemical sensor gas sensor control of nitrogen-vacancy defect emission bio bioanalytical applications biosensor bio-inspired strain sensors biomedical applications pressure sensor pressure sensor with si3n4 membare and graphene strain elements biomedical pressure sensor electronical skin high speed rapid response criss cross graphene pattern strain sensor for human motion monitoring micromechanics measurement of nanocrystalline graphnee

6.3.2. electronics transistor bilayer transistor nanoribbon transistor rf transistor gbt (tunneling transistor) Graphene field-effect device (GFET) characterisation terahetz detector flexible large scale integration suspended diode circuits flexible solar cells graphene molecules supercapacitor flexible 3d graphene-based for application in supercapacitors flexible electronics tunable filed effect properties - low k-dielectric

6.3.3. folding liquid evaporation driven

6.3.4. composite materials graphene polymer Transparent, Flexible, and Conducting Films

6.3.5. optics optoelectonics photodetector selectively enhanced photocurrent on twisted bilayer photonics light emission from graphene nanocrystalline graphene macroscopic and direct light propulsion of bulk graphene

6.3.6. heterostructures graphene/hBN electric-field and strain-tunable mos2/h-bn/graphene vertical heterostructure graphene based heterostructure

6.3.7. superhydrphobic graphene

6.3.8. high temperature thin film devices

6.3.9. filtration and desalination of water

6.3.10. sensing

6.3.11. contacts flexible

6.3.12. stability of few layer graphene doped with gold chloride

6.4. contacting

6.4.1. as electrode for mos2

6.4.2. interconnects

6.4.3. contact resistance

6.4.4. bottom graphene electrode

6.5. review

6.6. passivation

6.7. mulitlayer graphene

6.7.1. layer-by-layer stacking stacking on copper without removing top pmma stacking and removing pmma on substrate layer-by-layer problem: increasing roughness

6.7.2. bernal stacked

6.8. graphene oxid (GO)

6.8.1. properties mechanical young's modulus: 0.15 +- 0.03 TPa intrinsic strength: 4.4 +- 0.6 GPa (3.1 +- 0.4 N/m) thickness: 0.7 nm

6.8.2. application membrane oil and water separation

6.9. graphene ink

6.9.1. properties improve by laser-annealing

6.10. analytics

7. OSTE+

7.1. application

7.1.1. robust microdevices

7.1.2. improved photo structuring

8. WSe2

8.1. applications

8.1.1. light emitting tunneling transistor

9. WS2

9.1. properties

9.1.1. optical photolminescence

9.2. contacting

9.2.1. chromium as ideal contact metal

9.3. applications

9.3.1. photodetector

9.3.2. mems/nems gas sensor humidity sensor

10. fabrication processes

10.1. Evaporation

10.2. Sputtering

10.3. Wet etching

10.3.1. copper Sodiumpersulfate 20g/500ml H2O FeCl3 8%: 20g FeCl3 + 230g H2O

10.3.2. sio2 Buffered oxide etch (BOE) 5:1 Buffered oxide etch (BOE), 5:1 Buffered HF, (5 40% NH4F:1 49%HF): 100 nm/min (thermal oxide) concentrated HF (49%) 10:1 HF 10 H2O: 1 HF: 23nm/min (thermal oxide) HF vapor HF + H2O vapor, 1cm over dish with 49% HF: 66 nm/min (thermal oxide)

10.3.3. silicon nitride (Si3N4) Buffered oxide etch (BOE), Buffered HF 5:1 Buffered oxide etch (BOE), 5:1 Buffered HF, (5 40% NH4F:1 49%HF): 60 nm/min (PECVD) phosphoric acid

10.3.4. Si KOH Isotropic, 30% by weight, 80°C: 1100 nm/min

10.3.5. poly si KOH Isotropic, 30% by weight, 80°C: >1000 nm/min

10.3.6. Aluminum KOH 30% by weight, 80°C: >800 nm/min

10.4. Dry etching

10.4.1. graphene RIE: O2 80sccm O2 57mtorr 80W 20s

10.4.2. sio2 RIE: CF4 +O2 60mtorr 100W 44 nm/min (thermal oxide) RIE: SF6 + Ar 40sccm SF6 30sccm Ar 10mtorr 50W 33nm/min

10.4.3. si RIE: SF6 + Ar 40sccm SF6 30sccm Ar 10mtorr 50W 1500nm/min

10.4.4. Si3N4 RIE: SF6 + Ar 40sccm SF6 30sccm Ar 10mtorr 50W 150nm/min

10.4.5. mos2 RIE: BCl3 + Ar 15sccm BCl3 60sccm Ar 0.6 Pa 50W 5min RIE: Ar coupled plasma RIE (CCP-RIE) 100 sccm Ar 10 Pa 50W > 90s Layer by layer etching with cl and ar

10.5. Photolithography

10.5.1. photoresists positive exposed to light becomes soluble unexposed remains insoluble SPR 700-1.2 LOR 5A negative exposed to light becomes insoluble unexposed is dissolved by developer OSTE+ SU-8

10.5.2. systems karl suss MJB-3 mask aligner karl suss MA6/BA6 mask aligner

10.6. E-beam lithography

10.6.1. e-beam resists negative exposed to e-beam becomes insoluble unexposed is dissolved by developer AZ nLof 2007 su-8 positive exposed to e-beam becomes soluble unexposed remains insoluble AR-P 679.02 AR-P 649.04 AR-P 617.14

10.6.2. systems Raith FEI + Raith Elphy Quantum

10.6.3. graphene fabrication

10.6.4. graphen small hole kitting

10.7. Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD)

10.8. Critical point drying (CPD)

10.9. atomic layer deposition (ALD)

10.9.1. graphene selective deposition of al2o3 on graphene

10.9.2. mos2 self-limiting

10.10. annealing

10.10.1. rapid thermal annealing (RTA)

10.10.2. forming gas annealing system hereus oven

10.10.3. remove PMMA (200nm): Haereus oven ramp: 10°C/min 450°C for 1h Ar/H2 (5%) (3 l/min / 0.1 l/min)

10.11. wafer dicing

10.12. spin-coating

10.13. synthesis

10.13.1. chemical vapor deposition (CVD) Thermal chemical vapor deposition (thermal CVD) graphene mos2 TMDs hBN Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) graphene

10.13.2. graphene synthesis directly on polymer FET as carbon source patterned 30nm Ni layer as catalysator laser treatmentfor direct synthesis

10.13.3. lpcvd large-area hbn

10.13.4. molecular beam epitaxy graphene on hBN visualization of grain sturcture of 2d materials

11. analytics

11.1. Atomic force microscope (AFM)

11.1.1. systems PSIA XE-100 tapping mode (dynamic force microscopy): - use NC-mode and NC-tip - at 5kHz adjust drive that resonance peak is in y-units 1-3 - set-point a little left of resonance peak - line set-point bit higher than half the resonance peak height best parameters: - gain: 2.2 - scan speed: 0.7 Hz non contact mode (nc-mode): - use NC-mode and NC-tip - at 5kHz adjust drive that resonance peak is in y-units 1-3 - set-point a little right of resonance peak - line set-point bit higher than half the resonance peak height best parameters: - gain: 2.2 - scan speed: 0.3 Hz

11.2. scanning electron microscope (SEM)

11.3. focused ion beam (FIB)

11.4. Raman Spectroscopy

11.4.1. graphene 532nm and 633 nm laser single layer spectrum D-peak: defect peak ~1350 cm^-1 G-peak (4x 2D-peak): ~1580 cm^-1 2D- peak: ~2700 cm^-1 multilayer spectrum 5+ layer not distinguishable from graphite suspended graphene probing mechanical properties of graphene ripple formation in suspended graphene strain effect on suspended graphene by polarized raman probing charged impurities in suspended graphene intrinsic properties of exfoliated free-standing graphene raman of graphene and bilayer under biaxial strain (bubbles) uniaxial strain on graphene elastic properties of suspended graphene raman spectroscopy and kelvin force probe microscopy temperature on substrate graphene nanometer-scale strain variation in graphene interface coupling in twisted multilayer graphene rayleigh imaging of graphene and graphene layers spacially resolved raman of single- and few-layer graphene graphene fingerprint thickness-dependent native strain surface-enhanced raman scattering of hybrid structures with ag nanoparticles ans graphene

11.4.2. MoS2 488nm laser 382.9 cm^-1 406.0 cm^-1 on hBN raman shift mos2 on substrate shift in electron irradiated monolayer

11.4.3. hBN

11.5. Keithley SCS 4200 Parameter Analyzer

11.6. Light Microscope

11.6.1. light field

11.6.2. dark field

11.7. Elipsometry

11.8. Laser confocal microscope

11.8.1. brands Olympus LEXT OLS4100

11.9. probe station

11.9.1. Lakeshore cryo probestation

12. theory

12.1. electrical

12.1.1. resistivity: ρ = R * A / l = [ Ωm] ρ: resistivity R: resistance A = w * t: cross section area = width * thickness l: length most used: Ωmm, Ωµm

12.1.2. capacitance: C = ε_0 * ε_r * A / h = [F] C: capacitance ε_0: permitivity ε_r: relative permitivity A: area h: plate distance dieelectric capacitance: C = ε_0 * ε_r / t_ox = [F] C: capacitance ε_0: permitivity ε_r: relative permitivity t_ox: oxide thickness

12.1.3. pull-in voltage: V_pull-in = sqrt(2/3)^3 * (k * h^3 / ε_0 * ε_r *A)) V_pull-in: pull-in voltage k: spring constant h: plate distance ε_0 permitivity ε_r: relative permitivity A: area

12.1.4. electron mobility (graphene): µ = (L / W) * g_m / C_ox * V_ds µ: mobility L: channel length W: channel width g_m provided by keithley g_m = dI_ds/dV_g at each V_gs point is calculated for each g_m point g_m = I_ds / ( V_gs - V_d) or for each g_m point g_m = (y2-y1)/(x2-x1) V_ds: source-drain voltage C_ox: oxide capacitance C_ox = ε_0 * ε_r / d_ox ε_0 permitivity ε_r: relative permitivity d_ox: oxide thickness

12.1.5. gate leakage: - parallel shift of the curve indicates a gate leakage - always check I_gate and plot it while measurement

12.2. mechanical

12.2.1. mechanical stress: σ = F / A = [N/m^2] σ: mechanical stress F: force A = w * t: cross section area = width * thickness

12.2.2. mechanical strain: ε = σ / E = s / l = [ ] ε: mechanical strain σ: mechanical stress E: young's modulus s: displacement due to mechanical strain l: length

12.2.3. force Force (related to mechanical stress): F = A * E * ε = [N] F: force A = w * t: cross section area = width * thickness ε: mechanical strain electrostatic force: F = 1/2 * ε_0 * ε_r * A * (V^2 / h^2) = [N] F: eletrostatic force ε_0: permitivity ε_r: relative permitivity A: area V: voltage h: plate distance

12.2.4. gauge factor: η = ΔR / ε * R η: gauge factor ΔR: change in resistance R: resistivity ε: strain: ε = (P * L / µ)^2/3 ε: strain P: pressure L: length of cavity µ: graphene shear modulus (150 N/m) --> ΔR / R = η (P * L / µ)^2/3

12.3. circuits

12.3.1. types ring oscilator - series of at least 3 inverters (inverter: nmos+pmos) - final output of the last is inertial input in the first - final output is inverted of the inertial input - channel takes some time to charge - oscillation starts spontaneously - increase of frequency: 1. increase applied voltage 2. smaller number of inverters inverter - 1 nmos and 1 pmos together - input voltage is inverted

12.4. units

12.4.1. electrical E- field: N / C = V / m = kg * m / s^3 * A Volts: V = W / A = m^2 * kg / s^3 * A Farad: F = C / V = s^4 * A^2 / m^2 * kg Ohm: Ω = V / A = m^2 * kg / s^3 * A^2 Coulomb: C = A * s

12.4.2. mechanical Pascal: Pa = N / m^2 = kg / m * s^2 newton: N = m * kg / s^2 Watt: W = J / s = m^2 * kg / s^3 Joule: J = N * m = m^2 * kg / s^2 = eV * C

12.5. optical

12.5.1. wavenumber: k = 2 * π / λ = [1 / m] k: wavenumber λ: wavelength

12.5.2. wavelength: λ = 1.24 / h * ν = [µm] λ: wavelength hν: energy in eV

12.6. constants

12.6.1. mechanical speed of light: c = 2.9981e8 m/s atomic mass unit: u = 1.66e-27 kg boltzmann's constant: k = 1.38e-23 J/K = 8.62e-5 eV/K electron rest mass: m_0 = 9.11e-31 kg m_o c^2 = 5.11e5 eV proton rest mass: m_p = 1.67e-27 kg m_p c = 9.38e8 eV neutron rest mass: m_n = 1.67e-27 kg m_n c^2 = 9.38e8 eV planck's constant: h = 6.63e-34 Js = 4.41e-15 eVs ћ = 1.05e-34 Js = 6.58e-16 eVs avogadro's number: N_A = 6.02e23 molecules/mole energy at room temperature: kT = 0.0259 eV = 4.11e-21 J = 9.83e-22 cal = 4.114 pN * nm

12.6.2. electrical elementary charge: q = 1.602e-19 C permittivity: ε_0 = 8.85e-12 F/m = 8.85e-15 F/cm

12.6.3. optical

12.7. midnight formula: x_1/2 = -b +- sqrt(b^2 - 4 * a * c)/2 * c

13. packaging

13.1. pressure sensor

13.1.1. polymer package

14. other material

14.1. applications

14.1.1. suspended ru nanosheets for water splitting

14.1.2. mems/nems pressure sensor flexible pressure sensor based on pdms and elastomer film gas sensor

15. off-topic

15.1. nanotechnology

15.1.1. nanotechnology solutions for global water challenges

16. review

16.1. new materials for post-si computing

16.2. 2d materials for electronic applications