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Astronomy by Mind Map: Astronomy

1. the sun

1.1. The sun first began shining about 5 billion years ago and is expected to continue shining for about 5 billion years more

1.2. The two layers we can only see during a solar eclipse is the chromosphere And corona

1.3. The layer that is considered to be the boundary of the sun is the photosphere

1.3.1. Which we see from earth

1.4. Nuclear fusion occurs in the core of the sun

1.4.1. This is the process in which light atoms fuse and become very hot and very bright

1.5. Two elements that make up 99% of the sun.

1.5.1. hydrogen and helium

1.6. Solar flare: Is a massive explosion at the surface of the sun

1.6.1. Coronal mass ejection: when this occurs a large amount of plasma is thrown out through the corona

1.6.2. The earth is protected by solar flares and coronal ejection reaching our planet is by earths magnetic field diverting much of the plasma away from the planet

2. dark matter

2.1. Refers to matter in the universe  that is invisible

2.2. 27% of the universe is filled with dark matter

3. 3 characteristics stars are arranged by

3.1. Surface temperature: The hottest stars are plotted on the  left, and the coolest stars are plotted on the right.

3.2. Colour- Red stars are plotted on the right, and blue plotted on the left. Other stars, such as the yellow sun are plotted in between

3.3. Luminosity: The brightest stars are plotted at the top and  dimmest stars are plotted at the bottom

3.4. Groups of stars that DO NOT appear in the sequence often at the end of their lives

3.4.1. White dwarfs: Are white because they are hot but dim because they are small. White dwarfs are cooling eventually become black Red Giants: The outer layer of these stars are cool and appear red, but they are bright because they are so large. All of these giants will eventually explode

4. geostationary orbit

4.1. A satellite that orbits earth at the same rate as the earths rotates, making it look stationary (in one place)

5. 3 different shapes galaxies can have

5.1. Elliptical: Is a shape like a flatted sphere. Elliptical galaxies are those whose shape ranges. This happens when galaxies merge

5.2. Spiral and Barred spiral galaxy: spiral is named for its spiral arms and if it also has what looks like bars across them, they are called a barred spiral galaxy.

5.2.1. the Milky Way is a spiral galaxy

5.3. Irregular: If a galaxy isn't like a spiral or Elliptical or  without a shape, it is a irregular Galaxy

6. satellite

6.1. A device placed in orbit around earth or another celestial object

6.2. Artificial satellite is an artificial body placed in orbit to collect information or for communication

7. All galaxies have stars, planets and dust

8. Hertzsprung-Russel diagram: created by Ejnar Hertzsprung and Henry Norris Russel

8.1. they wanted to find out whether any pattern might emerge that would tell us more about the nature of stars, there was and this diagram was made

9. gps

9.1. stands for global positioning system and uses at least 3 satellites to pin point your location using low energy microwave signals.

10. spinoff

10.1. A secondary beneficial effect or product of a thing or activity in this case from the technology they use in space like a smoke dectector

11. Planets

11.1. four inner planets (rocky planets)

11.1.1. Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars

11.2. four outer planets (gas and ice)

11.2.1. Jupiter,Saturn,Uranus, Neptune

11.3. the asteroid belt divides the rocky and gaseous planets

11.4. one minor or dwarf planets

11.4.1. Pluto

12. asteroid belt

12.1. A region of rocky debris that forms a ring all the way around the sun and the inner planets at a  distance of about 3 AU. The asteroid  contains billions of pieces of rock of all sizes

13. supernova

13.1. is when a star explodes, the  gradual build up of heavy elements in the  stars center cause the core to collapse

14. light year

14.1. (LY) It equals the distance that a  beam of light can travel through space in one year. It is equivalent to 63  billion Km

15. nebula

15.1. is a large cloud of dust and gas.  Nebula are often called star nurseries,  because it is form their dust and  develop in

16. astronomical unit

16.1. (AU) equals the average distance between the sun and the earth in millions of km

17. black hole

17.1. A region of space where Gravity is so strong the nothing, not even light can escape.

17.2. The gravity also pulls in stars destroying them, and adds mass to the black hole increasing its size

17.3. Also centre of all galaxies

18. nuclear fusion

18.1. process in which the nuclei of  atoms fuse together and form larger atoms

19. microgravity

19.1. Affects can be reduced by exercising

19.2. Condition in which the gravitational forces that act on mass are greatly reduced

19.2.1. heart weakens

19.2.2. immune system weakens

19.2.3. muscle mass goes down

20. 3 general mass categories used to describe stars

20.1. Low mass: Use their nuclear fuel much slower  so they last longer

20.1.1. most stars in the universe are low mass

20.2. Medium mass: Burn their fuel faster than low mass. The sun is a medium mass dwarf star

20.3. High mass: Are 10 times the mass of the sun. As gravity pulls matter into the center of the star, the star is hotter, brighter, and bluer than other stars.

21. 4 main types of spacecrafts

21.1. rocket

21.2. Spacestation

21.2.1. the international space station (ISS) is the biggest space station ever built

21.3. space probe

21.4. space shuttle

22. star

22.1. is a hot ball of plasma and it shines  because nuclear fusion is taking pace in its  core

23. solar system

23.1. is the sun together with all the  planets held by the suns gravitational pull and  orbit around it

24. prostar

24.1. A star in its first formation

24.2. The star draws in material falling inward to the core that has excess energy.