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Biology by Mind Map: Biology

1. Species

1.1. Similar organisms

2. Population

2.1. Same species, same area

3. Habitat

3.1. Physical environment

4. Community

4.1. Populations of different species that live and interact in an area

5. Ecosystem

5.1. a biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment.

6. Niche

6.1. All the interactions of a species

7. Biotic factors

7.1. organisms which are living things such as animals, people and plants that effect the ecosystem and other things in that ecosystem that they live in.

8. Abiotic factors

8.1. non-living chemical and physical parts of the environment that affect living organisms and the ecosystems

8.2. physical things such as rocks, air and water and measured things such as temperature, hours of sunlight etc.

9. Sustainability

9.1. Populations can produce and interact indefinitely

10. Biodiversity

10.1. the variety of life in the world or in a particular habitat or ecosystem.

10.2. High biodiversity = healthy, sustainable environment

11. Biomes

11.1. terrestial

11.1.1. tundra, boreal forest, grasslands, Temperate coniferous forests, Deciduous forests

11.2. aquatic

11.2.1. marine (ocean) or fresh water(lakes rivers)

12. Biosphere: 3 components that make it

12.1. Atmosphere

12.1.1. Layer of gases that surrounds the earth (Air)

12.2. Hydrosphere

12.2.1. All the water on earth

12.3. lithosphere

12.3.1. Earth's solid outer layer ( the crust)

13. Nutrients

13.1. Substances that an organism uses to build and repair the cells of it's body

13.2. Provides energy

13.3. Animals eat food to get nutrients

13.4. Plants get nutrients from the soil

13.5. Nutrients cycle back and forth between biotic and abiotic parts

14. water cycle

14.1. Evaporation/ Transpiration, Condensation, Precipitation, Run-off, collection/ Seepage/ Root uptake

15. nitrogen cycle

15.1. Nitrogen fixation   Nitrogen + Nitrogen fixing bacteria = ammonia

15.2. Nitrification  Ammonia + nitrifying bacteria = nitrites --> nitrates Nitrates go into plants

15.3. Denitrification   Nitrates + denitrifying bacteria = nitrogen

16. carbon cycle

16.1. Biotic reservoir of forests  Abiotic reservoir of coal

17. food chain

17.1. Producer> primary consumer> secondary consumer>tertiary consumer

18. food web

18.1. Shows complicated feeding relations

19. energy pyramid

19.1. 60% passed out as waste 30% used in body processes and 10% stored in body tissue

20. Biotic interactions in ecosystem

20.1. Competition

20.2. Predation

20.3. Symbiosis

20.3.1. mutualism

20.3.2. commensalism

20.3.3. parasitism

21. population growth

21.1. J-Curve (Exponential growth)

21.2. Boom and Bust Curve (Sudden growth and sudden decline)

21.3. S-Curve (Sudden then Plateaued growth)

22. carrying capacity

22.1. Maximum number of individuals that an ecosystem can support without damage

23. Biotic limiting factors

23.1. Competition, Predation, Parasitism and disease

24. Abiotic limiting factors

24.1. Forest fires and other extreme climates

25. stewardship

25.1. A way of acting that involves taking personal  responsibility for the management and care of something

26. climate change & global warming

26.1. Occurs in a region when the climate may rise or fall

26.2. Increases in Earths average temperature caused partly by carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (Burnt fossil fuels)

27. 4 levels of risk

27.1. Expiration: a species no longer exists in One place but occur elsewhere

27.2. Endangered: a species that faces extinction or extirpation

27.3. Threatened: a species that is at risk of becoming  endangered if limiting factors are not reversed

27.4. extinct: the species no longer exists anywhere,é death of every member in that species

28. Ex-situ and In-situ

28.1. In-situ: Conserves species in their natural habitat and protect them from predators or creating a reserve for the species and habitat.

28.2. Ex-situ: Conserves species by removing them from their natural habitats this strategy is when a species is threatened or no longer exist if the existing population is extremely small. The at risk individuals are taken to zoos  or reserves

28.2.1. Ex-situ is a last resort

29. pest control

29.1. Integrated pest management uses knowledge about pests biology and habitat rather than using pesticides

29.2. some farmers use pesticides

29.2.1. Pesticides are bad for the environment

30. extinction

30.1. Death of every member of a species

31. native species

31.1. Species that normally live in that habitat

32. habitat change

32.1. Humans alter or destroy a habitat in which the native species that lived there can't live in it anymore

32.2. A reason humans may change habitats is when all resources are depleted or the habitat isn't sustainable anymore

33. ecology

33.1. Is the study of how organisms interact with each other as well as with the environment

34. competition

34.1. Similar species that feed on the same prey avoid competition by eating in different parts of the area

35. adaptation

35.1. Is used by organisms to avoid being eaten by predators ef. camouflage

36. 4 standards that any forestry practice must meet to receive certification from FSC (forest stewardship council)

36.1. The cut areas cannot be replanted with just a single species. The forest must be able to achieve a wild state

36.2. Waterways and wildlife habitat have to be protected

36.3. Parts of the forest have to be preserved

36.4. The cut areas have to be replanted