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Biology by Mind Map: Biology

1. Nutrients

1.1. Substances that an organism uses to build and repair the cells of it's body

1.2. Provides energy

1.3. Animals eat food to get nutrients

1.4. Plants get nutrients from the soil

1.5. Nutrients cycle back and forth between biotic and abiotic parts

2. water cycle

2.1. Evaporation/ Transpiration, Condensation, Precipitation, Run-off, collection/ Seepage/ Root uptake

3. nitrogen cycle

3.1. Nitrogen fixation   Nitrogen + Nitrogen fixing bacteria = ammonia

3.2. Nitrification  Ammonia + nitrifying bacteria = nitrites --> nitrates Nitrates go into plants

3.3. Denitrification   Nitrates + denitrifying bacteria = nitrogen

4. carbon cycle

4.1. Biotic reservoir of forests  Abiotic reservoir of coal

5. food chain

5.1. Producer> primary consumer> secondary consumer>tertiary consumer

6. food web

6.1. Shows complicated feeding relations

7. energy pyramid

7.1. 60% passed out as waste 30% used in body processes and 10% stored in body tissue

8. Biotic interactions in ecosystem

8.1. Competition

8.2. Predation

8.3. Symbiosis

8.3.1. mutualism

8.3.2. commensalism

8.3.3. parasitism

9. population growth

9.1. J-Curve (Exponential growth)

9.2. Boom and Bust Curve (Sudden growth and sudden decline)

9.3. S-Curve (Sudden then Plateaued growth)

10. carrying capacity

10.1. Maximum number of individuals that an ecosystem can support without damage

11. Biotic limiting factors

11.1. Competition, Predation, Parasitism and disease

12. Abiotic limiting factors

12.1. Forest fires and other extreme climates

13. 4 levels of risk

13.1. Expiration: a species no longer exists in One place but occur elsewhere

13.2. Endangered: a species that faces extinction or extirpation

13.3. Threatened: a species that is at risk of becoming  endangered if limiting factors are not reversed

13.4. extinct: the species no longer exists anywhere,é death of every member in that species

14. Ex-situ and In-situ

14.1. In-situ: Conserves species in their natural habitat and protect them from predators or creating a reserve for the species and habitat.

14.2. Ex-situ: Conserves species by removing them from their natural habitats this strategy is when a species is threatened or no longer exist if the existing population is extremely small. The at risk individuals are taken to zoos  or reserves

14.2.1. Ex-situ is a last resort

15. pest control

15.1. Integrated pest management uses knowledge about pests biology and habitat rather than using pesticides

15.2. some farmers use pesticides

15.2.1. Pesticides are bad for the environment

16. habitat change

16.1. Humans alter or destroy a habitat in which the native species that lived there can't live in it anymore

16.2. A reason humans may change habitats is when all resources are depleted or the habitat isn't sustainable anymore

17. competition

17.1. Similar species that feed on the same prey avoid competition by eating in different parts of the area

18. Species

18.1. Similar organisms

19. Population

19.1. Same species, same area

20. Habitat

20.1. Physical environment

21. Community

21.1. Populations of different species that live and interact in an area

22. Ecosystem

22.1. a biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment.

23. Niche

23.1. All the interactions of a species

24. Biotic factors

24.1. organisms which are living things such as animals, people and plants that effect the ecosystem and other things in that ecosystem that they live in.

25. Abiotic factors

25.1. non-living chemical and physical parts of the environment that affect living organisms and the ecosystems

25.2. physical things such as rocks, air and water and measured things such as temperature, hours of sunlight etc.

26. Sustainability

26.1. Populations can produce and interact indefinitely

27. Biodiversity

27.1. the variety of life in the world or in a particular habitat or ecosystem.

27.2. High biodiversity = healthy, sustainable environment

28. Biomes

28.1. terrestial

28.1.1. tundra, boreal forest, grasslands, Temperate coniferous forests, Deciduous forests

28.2. aquatic

28.2.1. marine (ocean) or fresh water(lakes rivers)

29. Biosphere: 3 components that make it

29.1. Atmosphere

29.1.1. Layer of gases that surrounds the earth (Air)

29.2. Hydrosphere

29.2.1. All the water on earth

29.3. lithosphere

29.3.1. Earth's solid outer layer ( the crust)

30. stewardship

30.1. A way of acting that involves taking personal  responsibility for the management and care of something

31. climate change & global warming

31.1. Occurs in a region when the climate may rise or fall

31.2. Increases in Earths average temperature caused partly by carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (Burnt fossil fuels)

32. extinction

32.1. Death of every member of a species

33. native species

33.1. Species that normally live in that habitat

34. ecology

34.1. Is the study of how organisms interact with each other as well as with the environment

35. adaptation

35.1. Is used by organisms to avoid being eaten by predators ef. camouflage

36. 4 standards that any forestry practice must meet to receive certification from FSC (forest stewardship council)

36.1. The cut areas cannot be replanted with just a single species. The forest must be able to achieve a wild state

36.2. Waterways and wildlife habitat have to be protected

36.3. Parts of the forest have to be preserved

36.4. The cut areas have to be replanted