14 Categories of Children with Disabilities Under IDEA

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14 Categories of Children with Disabilities Under IDEA by Mind Map: 14 Categories of Children with Disabilities Under IDEA

1. 8. Multiple Disabilities

1.1. Defined: Multiple impairments which can include: intellectual, blindness, orthopedic, loss of hearing, developmental delay...

1.1.1. Addressing the issue in the classroom Become familiar with technological devices that the student might be using to communicate or aid with interactions. Use pictures / visuals or voice recordings from the technology used by the student to give her or him the opportunity to interact in the classroom. If student has issues with writing out material encourage the use of the computer. In reading, audio books can be very helpful. Also using other peers to help in taking turns reading aloud to one another, or turning pages for the impaired student.

2. 2. Deaf-blindness

2.1. Defined: Being both visually and verbally impaired.

2.1.1. Addressing the issue in the classroom Teaching will only come through activity and doing. Working in small groups or on an individual basis. Encourage actions to not only passive (someone doing something to him or her) but being active and reciprocating (sharing or taking turns). Utilizing touch and repetitive motions so that the student will comprehend what is expected of him or her. Only in later stages will sign language be introduced.  For early stages touch and movement will be key for the child to develop and learn.

3. 3. Deafness

3.1. Defined: Hearing impairment which hinders the student from comprehending vocal instruction.

3.1.1. Addressing the issue in the classroom Teaching in a modified classroom with good acoustics for sound to carry. Ensuring that there are minimal sounds and noises that could sidetrack the student. Utilizing computer programs that can translate text-to-word for students. Utilizing microphone and speakers to project sound when teaching. If the student can speak sign language using a translator in class to sign during lessons. If the child is learning to read lips teachers should slow speech down and enunciate. Use both visuals and speech while instructing. Teachers ought to keep face turned to the audience rather than turning away to speak.

4. 4. Developmental Delay

4.1. Defined: A delay in progressing in one or more of these areas and or skills: physical, cognitive, communication skills,social, emotional, or behavioral.

4.1.1. Addressing the issue in the classroom Be strategic with seating arrangement example: don't place the child by a window (minimize distractions). Use a daily routine and schedules so the child can learn through repetition and predictability. Pair the child up with another responsible student to help keep the child on track. Use visual timers to allow the student to see how much time is left.

5. 5. Emotional Disturbance

5.1. Defined: Condition where learning is prohibited by the following tendencies: 1. barriers to learning that is not attributed to intellectual, sensory or health factors  2. Inability to make or keep friendships.       3. Abnormal behaviors or feelings in normal circumstances. 4. Generally unhappy or depressed. 5 develops fears or physical reactions to personal or school problems.

5.1.1. Addressing the issue in the classroom When addressing issues that may occur in the classroom remain calm and avoid reacting emotionally. Be detached and firm when conflict presents itself but at the same time be kind and patient. Establish a routine and schedule and try to stick to that routine as much as possible. Establish ways to reward positive behavior and encourage it. When establishing classroom rules do so at the beginning of the year. Make sure they are worded in a positive way rather than using the negative "dont do..."

6. 6. Hearing Impairment

6.1. Defined: Impairment in hearing but not to the point of being considered "deaf".

6.1.1. Addressing the issue in the classroom: Keep class instructions brief and to the point. When repeating instructions don't paraphrase but try to repeat exactly what was said. Give information through visuals. Example include: PowerPoint, handouts, smart boards. Use pictures text and voice together. When teaching review and summarize old material during the lesson. Review and summarize old material during the lesson. Repeat the questions and comments made by other students in a discussion. Pair up hearing students with hearing impaired students to help with projects (if this does not hinder the other student from finishing his or her work).

7. 7. Intellectual Disability

7.1. Defined:  Sub-average intellectual capacity as well as an inability to adapt behavior especially within the developmental stages.

7.1.1. Addressing the issue in the classroom Utilizing hands-on learning methods within the classroom. Utilizing interactive activities within the classroom to encourage cognitive as well as behavioral  development. When giving directions break down the steps so that the progression is slow and simple.  Slowly build on bigger concepts. Encourage group learning activities so that students can motivate one another.

8. 9. Orthopedic impairment

8.1. Defined: Impairment that impacts the child's bones, joints or muscles. This can be due to a congenital anomaly, a disease or other causes.

8.1.1. Addressing the issue in the classroom Ensure the classroom is set up in such a way that it accommodates students with orthopedic impairments. Communicate with the parents as to what the specific needs of the child are and how to best accommodate the needs of the child. Familiarize yourself with any technology used by the student and incorporate it in class to help integrate the student with the rest of the class. Grant the student extra time to finish assignments and to get information written down. Modify lessons so as to include the student in any activities.  This can be accomplished by assigning a responsible student to aid the impaired student in the classroom in doing activities or taking notes.

9. 10. Other Health Impairment

9.1. Defined: Can include limited strength, limited vitality, or lack of alertness, which can be traced back to causes such as ADD, ADHD, diabetes, epilepsy, sickle cell anemia...

9.1.1. Addressing the issue in the classroom Teachers need to be proactive by asking questions of the parents and other teachers who have had the child in the past to educate themselves as to the best way to understand the specific needs of the student. Seek to work as a team with the parents, medical professionals, and other teachers so as to effectively serve the child and ensure success in the classroom. Don't be overly restrictive of the student when making classroom modifications, but allow him or her to take risks along with their peers. Use communication technology and computer learning programs when appropriate. Take note of any medications that need to be administered.

10. 11. Specific Learning Disability

10.1. Defined: Involves an impairment to the psychological process which in turn affects the individual's capacity to comprehend and communicate.  Examples include brain injuries, dyslexia, perceptual disability, lighter forms of brain dysfunction and developmental aphasia.

10.1.1. Addressing the issue in the classroom Students who find reading difficult should be encouraged to type and read books with larger font and more spacing between words and paragraphs. For those students with memory issues, informational charts or calculators can be used as well. Utilize videos and audio books which can aid a student's comprehension of material covered in class.  This can also be used to help students whose reading is below the expected level. Tape lessons in class for the student to go back to and listen over again. If there is difficulty in writing and assign another responsible student to help by taking notes in class and sharing them with the other student after class. Taped audio and read along materials can be used if the student has difficulty in reading.

11. 13.  Traumatic brain Injury

11.1. Defined: Caused by external, physical impact.  Can result in full or partial impairment to the brain. Can affect speech, memory, cognition, abstract thought, perceptual capacity...

11.1.1. Addressing the issue in the classroom Seek to develop a good relationship with the student. Affirm the students strengths and accomplishments with enthusiasm. Be optimistic in interactions. Encourage the student to grow on his or her own independent of you (avoid creating a dependency).

12. 12.  Speech or Language

12.1. Defined: This can include speech or language impairments such as stuttering, an inability to articulate speech, and voice or language impairment.

12.1.1. Addressing the issue in the classroom Place students with speech or language impairments in the front of the classroom so as to make it easier to listen. Establish your classroom as a safe environment where students can feel accepted. Allow student to use technology to answer questions or to make presentations in class example: allow student to prepare a video, audio, or other file prior to class and then to present it. When asking questions in class ask in such a way so that the child can answer with gestures or actions so that they won't have to use their voice in front of the class (if the child is feeling uncomfortable). Teaching style should include well organized and clear instructions when giving information or assigning work. Provide frequent questions to reinforce what is being taught.

13. 1. Autism

13.1. Early Clues and signs in Autistic children are subtle but can include:

13.1.1. Not responsive to his or her own name being spoken.

13.1.2. Lack of interaction with others/doesn't share enjoyment.

13.1.3. Intense Focus on objects or things of interest.

13.1.4. Not able to make social connections.

13.1.5. Interesting video on signs of Autistic children at 1 years old in comparison to 1 year old children without Autism: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YtvP5A5OHpU

13.2. Defined: A neurological disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction.

13.2.1. Addressing the issue in the classroom Using slow, clear speech and simple communication. Using visual aids, pictures or tangible objects the student can touch. Avoid long instructions and big assignments, keep things simple and brief. Use repetition in teaching to reinforce ideas. Use the student's first name when addressing them. Make a simple, clear organizer for the student to see visually what is expected of her or him for that particular day.

14. 14. Visual impairment including blindness

14.1. Defined: Vision is impaired to the point of causing blindness and even with the use of corrective eye wear the vision is still inhibited.

14.1.1. Addressing the Issue in the classroom When teaching, make sure to provide word pictures with any visual material used i.e. Describe what is on the board or in the book When writing information on the board make sure to read it out loud as you write Provide physical materials that will aid the student in forming mental pictures of concepts Have visually impaired students sit at the front of the class so as to better ensure that they hear all that is being said

15. Brandon Williams