2nd language acquisition

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2nd language acquisition by Mind Map: 2nd language acquisition

1. Input Factor

1.1. Frequency

1.2. Salience

1.3. Complexity

1.4. Type of interlocutor

2. Cognitive Factors

2.1. Cognitive Development

2.2. Cognitive Processes

2.2.1. imitation

2.2.2. analogy

2.2.3. generalisation

2.2.4. rote memorisation

2.3. Cognitive Style

2.3.1. field dependence

2.3.2. category width

2.3.3. cognitive interference

2.3.4. monitoring

3. Instructional Factors

3.1. Goals

3.2. Teacher

3.3. Method

3.4. Text

3.5. Duration

3.6. Intensity

4. Personal Factors

4.1. Nesting Patterns

4.2. Transition Anxiety

4.3. Reaction to Teaching Methods

4.4. Choice of Learning Strategies

5. Biological Factors

5.1. Lateralisation

5.2. Transfer

5.3. Infrasystem

6. Social Factors

6.1. Dominance / Nondominance

6.2. Subordination

6.3. Assimilation

6.3.1. giving up own lifestyle and values and adopting those of TL group

6.3.1.1. maximises contact

6.4. Preservation

6.4.1. maintaining own lifestyle and values and rejecting those of TL group

6.4.1.1. creates social distance

6.5. Adaptation

6.5.1. adapting lifestyle and values of TL group but maitaining own lifestyle for intragroup use

6.5.1.1. varying degrees of contact with TL group

6.6. Enclosure

6.6.1. sharing churches, schools, clubs, recreational facilities, crafts, professions and trades

6.7. Cohesiveness

6.8. Size

6.9. Congruence

6.9.1. similarity between cultures

6.10. Attitude

6.11. Intended Length of Residence in TL area

7. Affective Factors

7.1. Language Shock

7.1.1. fear of appearing comic

7.2. Culture Shock

7.2.1. anxiety resulting from the disorientation encoutered upon entering a new culture

7.3. Motivation

7.3.1. integrative motivation

7.3.1.1. meet with, talk to, find out about and become like speakers of the TL group

7.3.2. instrumental motivation

7.3.2.1. utilitarian reasons such as getting ahead in the occupation or gaining recognition

7.4. Ego-Permeability

8. Acquisition

8.1. definition

8.1.1. gradual development of ability in a language by using it naturally in communicative situations

9. Learning

9.1. definition

9.1.1. conscious process of accumulating knowledge of vocabulary and grammar of a language

10. Methods

10.1. grammar-translation method

10.2. communicative approaches

10.3. audiolingual method

11. Communicative Competence

11.1. grammatical competence

11.2. sociolinguistic competence

11.3. strategic competence

12. Affective Filter

12.1. barrier to acquisition that results from negative feelings or experience

13. Input Hypothesis

13.1. input has to be slightly beyond the learner's level

13.2. listening = crucial activity

14. Aptitude Factors

14.1. Modern Language Aptitude

14.2. IQ

14.3. Strephosymbolia

15. Personality Factors

15.1. Tolerance for Ambiguity

15.2. Sensivity to Rejection

15.3. Introversion / Extroversion

15.4. Self-esteem