Earth Science

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Earth Science by Mind Map: Earth Science

1. Weathering and Soils

1.1. Soil

1.1.1. O horizon

1.1.2. A horizon

1.1.3. E horizon

1.1.4. B horizon

1.1.5. C horizon

1.2. Weathering

1.2.1. Types of Weathering

1.2.1.1. Physical Weathering

1.2.1.1.1. Unloading

1.2.1.1.2. Wedging

1.2.1.2. Chemical Weathering

1.2.1.2.1. Hydrolisis

1.2.1.2.2. Dissolution

1.2.1.2.3. Oxidation

1.2.1.3. Biochemical Weathering

1.2.1.3.1. Microscopic

1.2.1.3.2. Macroscopic

1.2.2. Factors that affect weathering rates

1.2.2.1. Rock Composition

1.2.2.2. Rock properties

1.2.2.3. Climate

2. Atmosphere

2.1. Layers of the Atmosphere

2.1.1. Troposphere

2.1.2. Stratosphere

2.1.3. Mesosphere

2.1.4. Thermosphere

2.2. Composed of:

2.2.1. 78% Nitrogen

2.2.2. 21% Oxygen

2.2.3. 1% Other gasses

2.3. Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR)

2.3.1. Can be scattered

2.3.2. Can be reflected

2.3.3. Can be absorbed

2.3.3.1. Thermosphere absorbs shorter wavelengths (x-rays, gamma rays).

2.3.3.2. Ozone in stratosphere absorbs UV rays.

2.3.3.3. Water vapour and CO2 in Troposphere absorb infared rays.

2.4. Heat and Temperature

2.4.1. Heat is the total amount of kinetic energy.

2.4.2. Temperature is the average amount of kinetic energy.

2.5. Weather Fronts

2.5.1. Cold Front

2.5.2. Warm Front

2.5.3. Stationary Front

2.5.4. Occluded Front

2.5.5. Frontal Lifting

2.5.5.1. Orographic Lift

2.5.6. Convergence

2.6. Clouds

2.6.1. Types of Clouds

2.6.1.1. Cirrus

2.6.1.2. Stratus

2.6.1.3. Cumulus

2.6.1.4. Nimbus

3. Earth in Space

3.1. Old Ideas, New Ideas

3.1.1. Geocentric

3.1.2. Heliocentric

3.2. Origin of the Universe

3.2.1. Size of the Universe

3.2.1.1. Luminosity

3.2.1.2. doppler effect

3.2.2. The Big Bang Theory

3.3. Stars and Planets

3.4. Our Solar System

3.4.1. Eight Planets

3.4.1.1. Terrestrial

3.4.1.2. Jovian

3.5. Earth, the Sun, and the Seasons

3.6. The Unique Composition of earth

3.6.1. Earth's Interior

3.6.1.1. Crust

3.6.1.2. Mantle

3.6.1.3. Core

4. Plate Tectonics

4.1. Science and Santa Claus

4.1.1. Paradigm

4.1.2. Paradigm Shift

4.2. Continental Drift

4.2.1. Contracting Earth

4.2.2. Wegener's Continental Drift

4.3. Evidence from the Seafloor

4.3.1. Seafloor Topography

4.3.1.1. Continental Shelf

4.3.1.2. Abyssal Plain

4.3.1.3. Oceanic Ridge

4.3.1.4. Oceanic Trench

4.3.2. Age of the Seafloor

4.3.3. Heat flow

4.3.4. Volcanoes

4.3.5. Earthquake

4.4. Plate Tectonics

4.4.1. Lithosphere

4.4.2. Aesthenosphere

4.4.3. Partial melting of rocks

4.4.3.1. Increasing temperature

4.4.3.2. Decreasing pressure

4.4.3.3. Addition of water

4.5. Plate Boundaries

4.5.1. Divergent

4.5.1.1. Birth

4.5.1.2. Youth

4.5.1.3. Maturity

4.5.2. Convergent

4.5.2.1. Ocean/Ocean

4.5.2.2. Ocean/Continent

4.5.2.3. Continent/Continent

4.5.3. Transform

5. Earthquakes

5.1. Experiencing an Earthquake firsthand

5.2. The Science of Ghost forests and Mega-earthquakes

5.3. Faults, Earthquakes, and Plate Tectonics

5.3.1. Fault

5.3.1.1. Focus

5.3.1.2. Epicenter

5.3.1.3. fault scarp

5.3.1.4. Types of Faults

5.3.1.4.1. Normal

5.3.1.4.2. Reverse

5.3.1.4.3. Strike-slip

5.4. Seismic Waves and Earthquake Detection

5.4.1. Seismic Waves

5.4.1.1. Seismograph

5.4.1.2. Seismogram

5.4.1.3. Forms of Seismic Waves

5.4.1.3.1. Surface

5.4.1.3.2. Body

5.5. Measurement of Earthquakes

5.5.1. Magnitude

5.5.1.1. Logarithmic scale

5.5.2. Intensity

5.5.2.1. Modified Mercalli Scale

5.6. Earthquake Hazards

5.6.1. Groundshaking

5.6.2. Aftershocks

5.6.3. Landslides

5.6.4. Elevation changes

5.6.5. Liquefaction

5.6.6. Tsunami

6. Volcanoes and Other Mountains

6.1. The Volcano Commandos

6.2. Magma Viscosity

6.2.1. Viscosity

6.3. Magma Sources and Magma Composition

6.3.1. Types of Magma

6.3.1.1. Basaltic

6.3.1.2. Rhyolitic

6.3.1.3. Andesitic

6.4. The Mount St. Helens Eruption

6.4.1. Cascade Mountains

6.4.2. Prior activity

6.4.3. May 18 Eruption

6.5. Products of Volcanic Eruptions

6.5.1. Airborne Eruption Products

6.5.1.1. Tephra

6.5.1.2. Volcanic gasses

6.5.2. Eruption Products on Land

6.5.2.1. Lava

6.5.2.2. Pyroclastic flow

6.5.2.3. Lahars

6.6. Volcanoes and Volcanic Landforms

6.6.1. Types of Volcanoes

6.6.1.1. Stratovolcanoes

6.6.1.2. Shield

6.6.1.3. Cinder cone

6.6.2. Other volcanic landforms

6.6.2.1. Caldera

6.6.2.2. Lava Plateau

6.6.2.3. Geyser

6.6.2.4. Hotspring

6.6.2.5. Mud volcano

6.6.2.6. Fumerole

6.7. Mountains: Why are They There?

6.8. The Rise and Fall of Mountains and Temperatures