Impacts of Technology

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Impacts of Technology by Mind Map: Impacts of Technology

1. Political

1.1. Development of wireless communication that enables easier access to information for all

1.1.1. Media influence has increased due to easier access to various forms of media Social Influence of Politicians Social media provides politicians with a platform to broadcast their views, as well as connect with voters --> direct line of communication Politicians have an increased ability to broadcast their views to a large audience --> no longer have to rely on speeches / election debates alone Closer scrutiny of politicians' work Media can act as the fourth estate, keeping a close watch on the government and reporting to the general public Hillary Clinton scandals Eg. Clinton Foundation, Private Email Server DNC Email Leak #Pray4Bernie provides a platform for voice to be heard, increase interaction between politicians and member of public E.g. Facebook Vivian Balakrishnan responded to a young hawker's Facebook post on the rising cost of running a hawker stall in Singapore. Minister Balakrishnan responded at 2am the next day

1.2. Modernizing countries and changing mindsets

1.2.1. Technology provides citizens with ways to access the outside world- eg. through social media and cellphones. Allows those under oppressive regimes to fight for freedom and their rights. Hong Kong Umbrella Movement- led by student protesters who saw the Beijing regime to be oppressive compared to the outside world. Arab Spring

1.3. Development of warfare technology

1.3.1. Increasing tension between countries e.g. North Korea-United States relations are hostile and have developed primarily during Korean War, but in recent years have been largely defined by North Korea's four tests of nuclear weapons and development of long range missiles.

1.4. Rise of cyberwarfare

1.4.1. Actions by a nation-state/terrorists/hacktivists to penetrate another nation's computers or networks for the purposes of causing damage or disruption. e.g. Hillary Clinton's leaked emails scandal. Clinton lost support in the presidential election because people lost trust in her. Reportedly done by Russians who wish for a pro-Putin government headed by Trump. 2009 US power grid hacking- believed to be an attempt to map out the power grid system, vital information in case of war. China or Russia suspected due to the sophisticated technology involved.

2. Environment

2.1. Environmental Technology

2.1.1. Development of tools to reduce pollution reduces risk to humans due to environmental damage, such as inhalation of dangerous chemicals, contamination of water sources etc. E.g. air pollution control equipment - electrostatic precipitators, biofilters, exhaust gas recirculation

2.1.2. Usage of renewable sources of energy much lower environmental impact than conventional energy technologies E.g. wind energy - plentiful, renewable, widely distributed, clean, produces no greenhouse gas emissions during operation, uses no water, and uses little land

2.1.3. Air and water purification systems E.g. water purification - disinfected for human consumption (drinking water), or to fulfill the requirements of medical, pharmacological, chemical and industrial applications 1.8 million people die from diarrheal diseases each year, and the World Health Organisation estimates that 94 percent of these cases are preventable through modifications to the environment, including access to safe water

2.2. Technotrash

2.2.1. Technological advancement leads to faster product replacement --> increasing amount of e-waste generated NEA: Singapore generates more than 60,000 tonnes of e-waste each year can lead to health impacts E-waste is exported to poorer countries for "recycling". However, the technotrash is processed by poor workers in rural towns in places like China and India. e.g. Guiyu, China Informal recycling operations in these towns do not have the resources to safely recycle tech materials. Unlike most other developed nations, the US has refused to ratify the 1989 Basel Convention, which prohibits transporting toxic waste (including technotrash) from one country to another. The convention prohibits any such cross-border transport, even for the purposes of recycling. (Basel Action Network and Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition, 2002) Technotrash that does not make its way to Asia (for processing) usually ends up in local landfills, where it poses risks to the surrounding communities.

2.3. Industrial Pollution

2.3.1. industrial equipment and processes are heavily polluting leads to environmental degradation e.g. textile production - Synthetic fibres (often derived from non-renewable resources such as oil or natural gas) have replaced natural fibres in many applications. They require extremely high temperatures to manufacture, which adds to air pollution and energy usage.

2.4. Deplete natural resources

2.4.1. UN has calculated that producing an average computer and monitor requires 530 pounds of fossil duels, 48 pounds of chemicals and 1.5 tons of water

3. Economic

3.1. Created jobs

3.1.1. The creation of new technological products calls for more workers. Workers needed to sell/market/manage/R&D for new products, etc.

3.1.2. in knowledge-intensive sectors education, medicine, professional services easy access to information and accelerating pace of communication have revolutionised most knowledge-based industries

3.2. Destroyed jobs

3.2.1. Agricultural labour Development of technology leads to the rise in automation and machinery usage for farms or for processing crops such as automated harvesting and automated weed removal. e.g. Robotics and Automation Society (RAS). 6.6% of the workforce in England and Wales were classified as agricultural labourers. Today that has fallen to 0.2%, a 95% decline in numbers.

3.2.2. Manufacturing labour Robots push labour costs down by 16%. (Same as agricultural labour)... machinery usage for e.g. car manufacturing. Robots are more productive and consistent than humans. Counter: human judgment may be needed in certain processes such as processed food inspection.

3.3. Created global economy, allowing for globalisation

3.3.1. Buying things online requires multiple technologies Consumers uses online shopping to buy goods Goods get produced in mass production line Goods get transported through cargo ships or planes Goods delivered to consumer via drones

3.3.2. Countries that have cheap labour or other means to lower cost of production eg. China and India becomes the world's centers of production for certain goods. Provide jobs for the natives, as well as cheap goods to foreign countries.

3.3.3. Trans-national companies on today's scale only exist due to globalization and effective communication between branches, allowed by technology. Such firms are driving forces behind certain area's research and development, thus MSC is lower than MPC, 3rd parties experience positive externalities of production. Some of these advances are only possible due to the vast market audience and the large amount of resources at the firm's disposal. Eg. Apple releasing the Ipod Classic, then the Ipod Nano, shuffle, Iphone, Ipad due to large demand from around the globe. Incentives to produce and to innovate.

4. Social

4.1. Increased ease of communication

4.1.1. Fibre-optic communication transmit messages at extremely high speeds allows communication between company branches in different countries to relay messages to one another easily

4.1.2. satellite comunication

4.2. Social media provides a platform for voice/opinions to be heard

4.2.1. garner support and raise awareness on social issues John Legend is a huge supporter of The Show Me Campaign, which he promotes on social media actively.  The campaign aims to ensure that every children in America receives quality education

4.2.2. Emma Watson in UN Women Goodwill Ambassador and actively promotes UN Women's HeForShe campaign encourages dialogue on Twitter regarding gender equality

4.3. Improve healthcare services

4.3.1. Inreases acurracy of diagnosis Advances in traditional imaging technologies e.g. full-field digital mammography unlike film-screen mammography, this offers an infinite ability to manipulate contrast and brightness with one exposure, allowing for clearer images and greater flexibility

4.3.2. Improved patient care and worker effieciency Information technology patient care safer and more reliable E.g. hand-held computers

4.4. Cyber crimes

4.4.1. Bullying: Development of communication platforms and websites gives people more ways to engage in cyber bullying. Over the last three years there has been an 87% increase in the number of Childline's counseling sessions about online bullying

4.4.2. Fraud: More difficult to track down and less government regulations Reroute your IP address and cover up identity. 5.1 million incidents of online fraud were estimated to have taken place in England and Wales (2014)

4.4.3. Computer hacking, phishing e.g. gaining details about someone's personal information (social security number, bank details) and impersonating them more than 9.9 million cases of identity theft in the United States (2015)