Earth Science

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Earth Science by Mind Map: Earth Science

1. Weathering and Soil

1.1. Kinds of Weathering

1.1.1. Physical Weathering

1.1.1.1. Unloading

1.1.1.2. Wedging

1.1.2. Chemical Weathering

1.1.2.1. Oxidation

1.1.2.2. Dissolution

1.1.2.3. Hydrolysis

1.1.3. Biological Weathering

1.1.3.1. Macroscopic

1.1.3.2. Microscopic

1.2. Weathering Rates

1.2.1. Rock Composition

1.2.2. Rock Properties

1.2.3. Climate

1.3. Soils

1.3.1. Soil Profile

1.3.1.1. O - Surface LItter

1.3.1.2. A - Topsoil

1.3.1.3. E - Zone of Leaching

1.3.1.4. B - Subsoil

1.3.1.5. C - Weathered Parent Material

1.3.1.6. Bedrock

1.3.2. Soil Formation

1.3.2.1. The rock in the source area

1.3.2.2. Temperature and Amount of Rain in the Region (Climate Factors)

1.3.2.3. Biological Activity occurring in an area

1.3.3. Soil Fertility

1.3.4. Soil Erosion

1.3.4.1. The amount and frequency of rainfall

1.3.4.2. Wind Velocity

1.3.4.3. Character of the Soil

1.3.4.4. Vegetation Cover

1.3.4.5. Slope of the Land Surface

1.3.5. Soil Conversation

1.3.5.1. Covering Soils

1.3.5.2. Limiting Contour Plowing

1.3.5.3. Terracing

1.3.5.4. Ensuring steady supply of nutrients

2. Geologic Time

2.1. Relative Time

2.1.1. Superposition

2.1.2. Inclusion

2.1.3. Cross-cutting relationships

2.1.4. Index Fossils

2.1.5. Trace Fossils

2.2. Geologic Time

2.2.1. Eons

2.2.1.1. Archean

2.2.1.2. Proterozoic

2.2.1.3. Phanerozoic

2.2.2. Eras

2.2.2.1. Paleozoic

2.2.2.2. Mesozoic

2.2.2.3. Cenozoic

2.3. Numerical Time

2.3.1. Salinity of Oceans

2.3.2. Conductive Cooling of Earth

2.3.3. Radioactive Decay

2.4. Rates of Changes

3. Rocks and Minerals

3.1. Kinds of Rocks

3.1.1. Igneous Rocks

3.1.1.1. Volcanic Rocks

3.1.1.2. Plutonic Rocks

3.1.2. Sedimentary Rocks

3.1.2.1. Clastic Sedimentary Rocks

3.1.2.1.1. Generation

3.1.2.1.2. Transportation

3.1.2.1.3. Lithification

3.1.2.2. Chemical Sedimentary Rocks

3.1.2.3. Biochemical Sedimentary Rocks

3.1.3. Metamorphic Rocks

3.1.3.1. Contact Metamorphism

3.1.3.2. Regional Metamorphism

3.2. Theories on How Rocks are Formed

3.2.1. Neptunism

4. Atmosphere

4.1. Structure of the Atmosphere

4.1.1. Troposphere

4.1.2. Stratosphere

4.1.3. Mesosphere

4.1.4. Thermosphere

4.1.5. Exosphere

4.2. Electromagnetic Radiation

4.2.1. It can be scattered

4.2.2. It can be reflected

4.2.3. Can be absorbed

4.3. Role of Water

4.3.1. Latent Heat

4.3.1.1. Absorbed Heat

4.3.1.1.1. Melting

4.3.1.1.2. Evaporation

4.3.1.1.3. Sublimination

4.3.1.2. Releases Heat

4.3.1.2.1. Freezing

4.3.1.2.2. Condensation

4.3.1.2.3. Deposition

4.3.2. Humidity

4.3.2.1. Absolute Humidity

4.3.2.2. Relative Humidity

4.3.3. Dew Point

4.4. Air Pressure, Condensation, and Precipitation

4.5. Clouds

4.5.1. Cirrus

4.5.2. Alto

4.5.3. Stratus

4.5.4. Cumulus

4.5.5. Nimbus

4.6. Frontal System

4.6.1. Density Lifting

4.6.2. Frontal Lifting

4.6.3. Orographic Lifting

4.6.4. Convergence Lifting

5. Weather Systems

5.1. Weather

5.1.1. Midlatitude Cyclone

5.1.2. Tornado

5.1.3. Thunderstorms

5.1.4. Hurricanes

6. Earth and Space

6.1. Origin of the Universe

6.1.1. Luminosity

6.1.1.1. Cepheid Variables

6.1.2. Doppler Effect

6.1.2.1. Red Shift

6.1.3. Big Bang Theory

6.2. Solar System

6.2.1. Terrestial Planets

6.2.1.1. Mercury

6.2.1.2. Venus

6.2.1.3. Earth

6.2.1.4. Mars

6.2.2. Jovian Planets

6.2.2.1. Jupiter

6.2.2.2. Saturn

6.2.2.3. Uranus

6.2.2.4. Neptune

6.2.3. Dwarf Planet

6.2.3.1. Pluto

6.3. Composition of the Earth

6.3.1. Crust

6.3.2. Mantle

6.3.3. Core

7. Volcanoes

7.1. Magma Viscosity

7.1.1. Less Silica = Low Viscosity

7.1.2. More Silica = High Viscosity

7.2. Magma Sources and Magma Composition

7.2.1. Basaltic Magma

7.2.1.1. Asthenosphere

7.2.1.1.1. Low Silica Content

7.2.2. Rhyolitic Magma

7.2.2.1. Continental Crust

7.2.2.1.1. High Silica Content

7.2.3. Andesitic Magma

7.2.3.1. Mantle Wedge

7.2.3.1.1. Intermediate Silica Content

7.3. Products of Volcanic Eruptions

7.3.1. Airborne

7.3.1.1. Lateral Blast

7.3.1.2. Tephra

7.3.1.3. Volcanic Gases

7.3.2. Flows on Land

7.3.2.1. Lava

7.3.2.2. Pyroclastic Flow

7.3.2.3. Lahars

7.4. Types of Volcanoes

7.4.1. Shield

7.4.2. Stratovolcanoes

7.4.3. Cinder Cone

7.5. Volcanic Landform

7.5.1. Caldera

7.5.2. Lava Plateau

7.5.3. Geysers

7.5.4. Hot Springs

7.5.5. Fumeroles

7.5.6. Mud Volcanoes

7.6. Mountains

7.6.1. Isostasy

8. Plate Tectonics

8.1. Continental Drift

8.1.1. Continuous mountain belt

8.1.2. Opposing edges of continents fit together

8.1.3. Unusual rock sequences

8.1.4. Evidence of thick ice sheet

8.1.5. Rocks formed in tropical condition

8.2. Evidence from Seafloor

8.2.1. Seafloor Topography

8.2.1.1. Continental Shelf

8.2.1.2. Abyssal plain

8.2.1.3. Oceanic Ridges

8.2.1.4. Oceanic Trenches

8.2.2. Age of the Seafloor

8.2.2.1. Youngest rocks - near the centers of ocean basins

8.2.2.2. Older rocks - margins of ocean basins

8.2.3. Heat flow

8.2.4. Volcanoes

8.2.5. Earthquakes

8.3. Plates

8.3.1. African

8.3.2. Antarctic

8.3.3. Eurasian

8.3.4. Indian-Australian

8.3.5. Nazca

8.3.6. North American

8.3.7. Pacific

8.3.8. South American

8.4. Plate Boundaries

8.4.1. Divergent

8.4.2. Convergent

8.4.3. Transform

9. Earthquakes

9.1. Faults

9.1.1. Normal Fault

9.1.2. Reverse Fault

9.1.3. Strike Slip Fault

9.2. Seismic Waves

9.2.1. Surface Waves

9.2.1.1. Rayleigh Waves

9.2.1.2. Love Waves

9.2.2. Body Waves

9.2.2.1. P Waves

9.2.2.2. S Waves

9.3. Measurement of Earthquakes

9.3.1. Magnitude

9.3.2. Intensity

9.3.2.1. Modified Mercalli Scale

9.4. Earthquakes Hazards

9.4.1. Ground Shaking

9.4.2. Aftershocks

9.4.3. Landslides

9.4.4. Elevation Changes

9.4.5. Liquefaction

9.4.6. Tsunami