Earth Science

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Earth Science by Mind Map: Earth Science

1. Earthquakes

1.1. Mega-earthquakes occur along subduction zones

1.2. Fault

1.2.1. A fracture in the crust on which movement has occured

1.3. Focus

1.3.1. location where movement begins on fault

1.4. Epicenter

1.4.1. location on surface above the focus

1.5. Fault Scarp

1.5.1. step in land surface formed by movement on the fault

1.6. 3 types of fault:

1.6.1. Normal Fault

1.6.2. Reverse Fault

1.6.3. Strike-Slip Fault

1.7. Seismic Gap

1.7.1. segments of active faults that have not experienced recent movements

1.8. Seismic Waves

1.8.1. Vibrations caused by earthquake

1.8.2. Seismograph- instrument

1.8.3. Seismogram- printed record

1.8.4. 2 Forms:

1.8.4.1. Surface Waves

1.8.4.1.1. Rayleigh Waves

1.8.4.1.2. Love Waves

1.8.4.2. Body Waves

1.8.4.2.1. Primary Waves

1.8.4.2.2. S Waves

1.9. Magnitude

1.9.1. standard measure of the energy released from an earthquake

1.10. Intensity

1.10.1. measure of the effects of an earthquake

2. Weathering

2.1. Physical Weathering

2.1.1. Definition: represents the  disintegration of                         rocks and minerals into smaller pieces

2.1.2. Unloading                                                                                              - as overlying rocks erode, pressure is removed a process known as unloading and buried rocks expand upward

2.1.3. Wedging/ Frost Wedging                                                                                                  - when water gets into cracks and freezes, it expands and causes a rock to break apart

2.1.3.1. Growth of salt crystals in small openings                         -occurs when minerals are precipitated as water containing salt moves through a crack

2.2. Chemical Weathering

2.2.1. Definition: decomposition of rock as a result of the chemical breakdown of minerals

2.2.2. Dissolution                                                                                                     -occurs when minerals in a rock are dissolved by water

2.2.2.1. Carbonic Acid can dissolve certain rocks and minerals

2.2.3. Hydrolysis                                                                                                           -occurs when hydrogen ions in water replace other ions in silicate minerals

2.2.3.1. Pollutants combine with rain to yield sulfuric and nitric acid producing an even more acidic solution termed acid rain

2.2.4. Oxidation                                                                                                       -occurs when oxygen frequently reacts with iron or other metals in rocks

2.2.4.1. Iron oxide is responsible for the red or yellow coloration commonly observed in some rocks and soils

2.3. Biological Weathering

2.3.1. Definition: it is the disintegration of rocks as a result of the action by living organisms

2.3.2. Macroscopic Processes                                                                            -action of plant, roots, animal burrows, termites and other boring organisms that remove or break down rocks and minerals

2.3.3. Microscopic Processes                                                                                      -some plant microbial activity releases organic acidic compounds

2.4. Rates of Weathering

2.4.1. Rock Composition                                                                          -different minerals react to different chemical weathering processes

2.4.2. Rock Properties                                                                               -the presence of water in a rock promotes weathering

2.4.3. Climate                                                                                                   -climate varies systematically with latitude and elevation

3. Earth and Universe

3.1. Origin of the Universe

3.1.1. Geocentric

3.1.1.1. Earth is the center of the planetary system

3.1.1.2. Proposed by Ptolomy

3.1.2. Heliocentric

3.1.2.1. Sun is the center of the planetary system

3.1.2.2. Proposed by Copernicus

3.1.3. Size of the Universe

3.1.3.1. Luminosity

3.1.3.1.1. Brightness of Pulsating Stars

3.1.3.2. Doppler Effect

3.1.3.2.1. apparent change in the frequency of sound waves or light waves due to the motion of the source relative to an observer

3.1.3.2.2. Red shift

3.1.4. Big Bang Theory

3.1.4.1. Universe began in rapid expansion

3.2. Stars and Planets

3.2.1. Stars

3.2.1.1. Stars vary in size and age

3.2.1.1.1. 3 Elements: Hydrogen, Oxygen, Carbon

3.2.2. Planets

3.2.2.1. Terrestrial Planets

3.2.2.1.1. Heavier, rocky planets closer to star

3.2.2.2. Jovian Planets

3.2.2.2.1. Lighter, gas-rich planets farther from star

3.3. Solar System

3.3.1. Sun

3.3.1.1. 99.8%of total mass of the solar system

3.3.1.2. Sunspots- coldest region

3.3.1.3. Solar Flares- result in disruption of Sun's magnetic field

3.3.1.4. Solar wind- stream of charged particles emitted from sun's magnetic field

3.4. Earth, Sun and Seasons

3.4.1. Tilt of Earth- 23.5 degrees

3.4.2. Insolation

3.4.2.1. amount of solar energy reaching Earth's surface

3.5. Unique Composition of Earth

3.5.1. Liquid Water

3.5.1.1. essential for life on Earth

3.5.2. Gravity and Protective Atmosphere

3.5.2.1. protects us from harmful UV rays

3.5.3. Life-sustaining gases

3.5.4. A strong magnetic field

4. Plate Tectonics

4.1. Continental Drift

4.1.1. Continents have occupied different locations on Earth's surface in the geologic past

4.1.1.1. Pangea

4.1.1.2. Laurasia

4.1.2. Wegener's Observations

4.1.2.1. Matching Features

4.1.2.1.1. Distribution of plants and animal fossils

4.1.2.1.2. Continuous mountain belt

4.1.2.1.3. Opposing edges of continents fit together

4.1.2.2. Paleoclimates

4.1.2.2.1. Glacial deposits

4.2. Contracting Earth

4.2.1. Planet is slowly cooling and contracting as heat of formation is lost

4.3. Evidence from the Seafloor

4.3.1. Seafloor Topography

4.3.1.1. Continental Shelf- narrow, shallow ocean surrounding continents

4.3.1.2. Abyssal Plain- relatively level seafloor

4.3.1.3. Continental Shelf- narrow, shallow ocean surrounding continents

4.3.1.4. Oceanic Ridge- submarine mountain range that is a source of volcanic activity

4.3.1.5. Oceanic Trench- narrow, deepest portion of ocean seafloor

4.3.2. Rocks of the seafloor are younger compared to continental rocks

4.3.3. Earthquakes found near oceanic ridges and trenches

4.3.4. Earth's Magnetic Field

4.3.4.1. Has negative and positive poles

4.3.4.2. Direction- the field points toward the magnetic poles

4.3.4.3. Inclination- the field points down in the NH and up in the SH

4.3.4.4. Normal Polarity- when negative magnetic pole is near NP

4.3.4.5. Reverse Polarity- when positive magnetic pole is near NP

4.4. Plate Boundaries

4.4.1. Convergent

4.4.1.1. Ocean/Ocean

4.4.1.1.1. When 2 oceanic plates collide, the older lithosphere is consumed in subduction zones

4.4.1.2. More silica = High viscosity

4.4.1.3. When an oceanic plate collides with a continental plate, the oceanic plate is consumed in the subduction zones

4.4.1.4. Ocean/Continent

4.4.1.5. Plates move toward each other

4.4.2. Divergent

4.4.2.1. Plates move apart

4.4.2.2. 3 Stages:

4.4.2.2.1. Birth- break up of continental lithosphere

4.4.2.2.2. Youth- narrow ocean forms

4.4.2.2.3. Maturity- wide ocean

4.4.3. Transform

4.4.3.1. No lithosphere created nor lithosphere destroyed

4.4.3.2. Plates move in opposite directions

5. Volcanoes and other Mountains

5.1. Magma

5.1.1. molten rock below the surface

5.1.2. Basaltic

5.1.2.1. partial melting of asthenosphere

5.1.3. Andesitic

5.1.3.1. partial melting of mantle rocks

5.1.4. Rhyolitic

5.1.4.1. partial melting of continental crust

5.2. Lava

5.2.1. molten rock at the surface

5.3. Viscosity

5.3.1. resistance to flow

5.3.2. depends on temperature and magma composition

5.3.3. Less silica = Low viscosity

5.3.4. More silica = High viscosity

5.4. Products of Volcanic Eruptions

5.4.1. Air

5.4.1.1. Volcanic Gases

5.4.1.1.1. water vapor, sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide

5.4.1.2. Tephra

5.4.1.2.1. represents particles blasted into air by eruption

5.4.1.3. Lateral Blasts

5.4.1.3.1. can destroy objects

5.4.2. Land

5.4.2.1. Lava

5.4.2.2. Pyroclastic Flow

5.4.2.2.1. dense cloud formed from combination of tephra and volcanic gases

5.4.2.3. Lahars

5.4.2.3.1. mudflows

5.5. Landforms

5.5.1. Shield Volcanoes

5.5.1.1. broad, gentle slopes

5.5.1.2. built from many low viscosity lava flows

5.5.2. Stratovolcanoes

5.5.2.1. most common volcano type

5.5.2.2. steeper slopes built from alternating layers of tephra and medium viscosity lava

5.5.3. Cinder cones

5.5.3.1. smallest volcanoes

5.5.3.2. built from more viscous magma products

6. Rocks and Minerals

6.1. Rocks are made of minerals

6.1.1. Atoms may have negative or positive charge if they lose or gain electrons

6.1.1.1. Ions- atoms with different numbers of protons and electrons

6.1.1.2. Ionic bonds- balance of negative and positive charges

6.1.1.3. Covalent bonds- sharing of electrons between elements

6.2. Minerals are made of elements

6.2.1. Crystal Form- arrangement of the faces of a crystal to form a particular shape

6.2.2. Cleavage- minerals break along planes of weakness defined by atomic structure

6.2.3. Hardness- minerals ranked by their relative hardness using Mohs Hardness Scale

6.2.4. Color- minerals have characteristic colors

6.2.5. Luster- how light reflects from mineral

6.2.6. Streak- color of mark on unglazed porcelain

7. Geologic Time

7.1. Superposition- rocks at the bottom are  the oldest

7.2. Cross-cutting- older rocks may be cut by younger rocks or features

7.3. Inclusion- Younger rocks may incorporate pieces of older rocks

7.4. Index Fossils- species that existed for a relatively short period of geologic time and found over large geographic areas are the best for precise correlations

7.5. Phanerozoic eon, Cenozoic era- Present

8. The Atmosphere

8.1. Atmosphere = Mixture of gases

8.2. Layers

8.2.1. Troposphere

8.2.1.1. first layer

8.2.1.2. where weather occurs and airplanes fly

8.2.2. Stratosphere

8.2.2.1. where ozone layer is located

8.2.3. Mesosphere

8.2.3.1. less oxygen molecules

8.2.4. Thermosphere

8.2.4.1. block UV rays, Gamma rays and X-rays

8.3. Heat- total energy

8.4. Temperature- average kinetic energy

8.5. Solar Radiation

8.5.1. Visible light and Infrared make up more than 90% of radiation at Earth's surface

8.5.2. Albedo- reflectivity of a surface

8.6. Weather

8.6.1. Water

8.6.1.1. Latent Heat

8.6.1.1.1. the amount of heat absorbed or released as water changes state

8.6.2. Humidity

8.6.2.1. amount of moisture in the air

8.6.3. Pressure

8.6.3.1. Lower latitude, high pressure

8.6.4. Clouds

8.6.4.1. Frontal Lifting- two large air masses of different densities meet. Their boundary is a front. The lighter warm air rises above the colder denser  air.

8.6.4.2. Orographic Lifting- air is forced to rise over an obstruction such as mountains.

8.6.4.3. Convergence Lifting- collision of  two air masses of similar temperature forces some air upward since both air masses cannot occupy the same space.

8.6.5. Winds

8.6.5.1. horizontal movement of air that rises in differences of air pressures