My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Sociological Perspective of Education

1.1. Three Theoretical Perspectives 1.) functionalism- stresses the interdependence of the social system, 2.)Conflict Theory- the view that "social order is not based on some collective agreement, but on the ability of dominant groups to impose their will on subordinate groups through force, cooptation and manipulation.)" (Exploring Education, 2013)They emphasize cohesion and struggle, 3.)Interactional theories-"critiques and extensions of the functional and conflict perspectives. The critiques arises from the observation that functional and conflict theories are very abstract and emphasize structure and process at a very general (macrosociological) level of analysis." ( Exploring Education,2013) Here is a video describing these perspectives that I found very helpful in understanding the theories. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XfKQ-ozKktM

1.2. It is no suprise that our education will efect us. Five effects of schooling on individuals are : adding to and changing our knowledge and attitudes, added abilities and opportunities for employment, adding to our social mobility, teachers behaviors affecting outcomes in our lives, and last but not least student peer groups and alienation  1.)Knowledge and Attitudes-There are many are abilities, attitudes and much knowledge that is acquired in school. "nobody argues that schools have no impact on student development , but there are sharp divisions among researchers about how significant school effects are, when taking into account social class background."(Exploring Education, Sadovnik, 2013) What are some ways that you believe that your knowledge, attitudes and characteristics have changed from being in school? Does the type of school have an effect on a students success? I believe that schools and the type of schools do highly affect us on an individual level. "Other research has indicated that the more education individuals receive, the more likely they are to read newspapers, books, and magazines, and take part in public affairs.(Exploring Education.Sadovnik,2013) 2.Employment- With greater education comes greater employment opportunities and greater opportunities to provide for families.  There is an increase in companies requiring higher education to be employed. "Research has shown that large organizations, such as corporations, require high levels of education for white-collar, managerial, or administrative jobs.(Collins,1971) (Exploring Education, Sadovnik,2013)  However education is not the only factor in explaining the levels of income for individuals. While getting academic credentials doesn't lead to better performance it will lead to a higher paying job.  3.) Education and mobility- "The belief that occupational  social mobility begin at the schoolhouse door is a critical component of the American ethos. As part of what might be termed civil religion, there is an abiding faith among most Americans that education is the great equalizer in the great status race. " (Exploring Education, Sadovnik,2013) Attached here is a video explaining the social mobility that is obtained from getting education 4.)Teacher Behavior-As teachers there are many roles experienced while teaching ,it is no surprise that there will be varied behaviors as teachers strive to meet the different expectations that are placed on them.Teachers behavior will greatly effect their students while in their classroom and afterwords. "Clearly, teachers are models for students, as in instructional leaders, teachers set standards for students and influences students self esteem and sense of efficacy."(exploring Education, Sadvonik,2013) Studies have shown that teachers effect their students by the labels they place on them and that students have been found to succeed as they have been praised and have had high expectations placed on them. 5.)Students peer Groups and alienation- what group were you in while attending high school? how has this affected you in terms of self esteem or in any other way? These experiences have likely shaped your everyday life and your educational experiences."Schools are far more than mere collections of individuals; they develop cultures,traditions,and restraints that profoundly influence those who work and study within them. They socialize and sort and select students and, in doing so,reproduce society."(Exploring Education, Sadvonik,2013)

2. Politics of Education

2.1. The Four Purposes of Education

2.1.1. 1.)Intellectual-"teach basic cognitive skills such as reading, writing, and math. To give certain knowledge on certain topics. Help student a quire skills." (Exploring Education, Sadovnick,2013) Helping us gain basic knowledge needed to live in society and to obtain an occupation

2.1.2. 2.) Political- "To instruct in allegiance to the existing political order. To prepare citizens who will participate in this political order. To help assimilate diverse cultural groups. into a common political order." (Exploring Education, Sadovnik,2013) Helping us to have allegiance to the society in which we live in.

2.1.3. 3.)Social- "Help solve social problems: to work as one of many institutions, such as family and the church to ensure social cohesion and to socialize children into the various roles, behaviors,and values of the society." (Exploring Education, Sadovnik,2013) helping an individual be able to fit into the society in which they live in and become a part of it.

2.1.4. 4.)Economic- prepare students for their later occupational roles and to select, train, and allocate individuals into the division of labor.

2.1.5. Here are to videos that I found very interesting about the purposes of Education.  https://youtu.be/4VGLluIug5c and https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=scx3emxZhno I believe that there are many purposes to Education. These main four purposes discussed in the book are so very true. I believe that education plays a very vital part in our life, community nation, and societies. Educations allows people to make a difference, help one another, grow, develop, enjoy life to it's fullest. These are some of the purposes and reasons for Education that I have found in my life. Education adds to our intellectual knowledge the knowledge of the basic, political helping shape our allegiance to the united states of america, grows our social abilities as we socialize and learn together, and prepares us to contribute to the economy that we are apart of. I believe that since education plays such a vital role in ones future and a society's future that Teachers shape the future. I love the of part our book which states: " Therefore the purposes of education in general , and schooling, in particular are concerned with the type of society people wish to live in and the type of people we wish to live in it. Ultimately, the purposes of education are directed at conceptions of  what constitutes the "good life" and a "good person". "

2.2. The Role of the school

2.2.1. There are many varying views on the role of the school. Schools play a vital role in implementing the four purposes of Education. The conservative, liberals, and radicals all see the roles of the school in a different perspective. The liberal perspective sees the importance of schools in training and socializing people they view and stress the importance that schools have to prepare students to respect and fit into a diverse society that is becoming more and more diverse. Liberals strongly believe that the schools role is provide socializing, ensure that students have an equal chance at success in the society and culture that they live in, to educate citizens as they participate in a democratic society, and helping individuals find their talent, skills creativity and sense of self.

3. History of Education

3.1. 1.) REFORM MOVEMENT-

3.1.1. 1.) One of the reform movements that I think had a very big impact on education was the move toward education for women and African Americans that happened in the  1820's. until this time women were just seen to have the role of homemaker and helpmate to men. Education was seen as too stressful for them. " Thus for the first half of the 19th century, educational opportunities for women were severely limited. Few females achieved an education other than rudimentary literacy and numeracy." (Exploring Education, Sadovnik, 2013) The movement toward women having more education consisted of women gradually attending elementary schools and private academies, Emma Hart Willard opening the Troy Female seminary, Catherine Esther Beecher and Mary Layon opening schools for women, many schools opening there doors to women throughout all of the United States.  I believe that this movement toward women having more education had many effects on society and led to many changes. Education opened up many opportunities for them that were not there for them before and lead to women playing a more intimate role in society. There was also an expansion of education for the African American during the Civil War. Prior to the civil war African Americans where slaves and their education was forbidden. Benjamin Roberts began the move for African american Education by Filing a legal law suit in Boston in 1846. African americans began forming there own schools until the emancipation proclamation was passed and brought more opportunities for African Americans even though there was still widespread violence.

3.2. 2.) HISTORICAL INTERPRETATION OF EDUCATION-

3.2.1. The Democratic- Liberal School: "Democratic Liberals believe that the history of the U.S education involves the progressive evolution, albeit flawed, of a school system committed to providing equality of opportunity for all." (Exploring Education, Sadnovik,2013) Liberalist see the moves of expanding educational opportunities to all. Democratics disapprove and try to prevent the formation of elite schools that are aimed toward the meritorious or the priveleged. Equal rights is their aim for all! Lawrence A. Cremin explains the democratic view very well in his book "In His final book, Popular Education and it's Discontents (1990) Cremin summarized this democratic liberal perspectives follows: "That kind of organization is part of the genius of American education it provides a place for everyone who wishes one, and in the end yields one of the most educated populations of the world." ( Exploring Education,Sadovnik,2013)

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. 1.)Pragmatism- Work and our personal experiences are at the heart of this philosophy. Some generic notions of pragmatism are: finding certain ways to achieve to achieve goals and meet desired ends, solving current day problems, its all about action! Experiences are where we learn"Pragmaitism is a philosophy that encourages people to find processes that work in order to achieve their desired ends." (Exploring Education,Sadovnik,2013)This philosophy is based on the idea that true learning will come best with applying concepts hands on and with social interaction. Practice makes perfect. The interactions in the environment are very important Some Key researchers in pragmatism include: George Sanders Peirce, William James, and John Dewey. " Both George Sanders Pierce and John Dewey were accredited with having described pragmatism in part through the biblical phrase by their fruits ye shall know them." (Exploring Education, Sadvonik,2013)  The goal of education according to Dewey's point of view is " providing students with the knowledge of how to improve the social order moreover, he believed that school should provide conjoint, communicated experience- that it should function for preparation for life in a democratic society." (Exploring Education, Sadvonik,2013) His view was highly in favor of preparing them for democratic society. The role of the teacher in pragmatism is viewed as guide and director. "The teacher assumes the peripheral position of facilitator. The teacher encourages, offers suggestions, and helps plan and implement courses of study."( Exploring Education, Sadvonik,2013) Some methods of instruction that are included in pragmatism are independent learning and dependent learning with group work being essential to exsposing students to different opinions, posing questions, allowing the children to apply the things that they have learned through experimenting, and no lecturing." What at first glance to the visitor might appear as chaotic was a carefully orchestrated classroom with children going about learning in non traditional ways."(Exploring Education,Sadnovik,2013) With curriculum it was child centered and all of the subjects were integrated. "Progressive educators were not wedded to a fixed curriculum either, rather curriculum changes as the social order changes and as children's needs and interests change."( Exploring Education,Sadovnik,2013) Here is a video explaining pragmistism.

5. Ch.6 Schools as organizations

5.1. 1.) The major stakeholders in my school district

5.1.1. State Senator: Senator phil Williams            House of representatives: Representative Becky Nordgren                                                         State superintendent: Michael Sentance                 Local superintendent Dr. Alan Cosby Representative of school board: Mary Scott Hunter                                                              local school board: place 1 Mr. Tim Womack   place 2: Mrs. Scarlett Farley  place 3 Mr.Todd Hindsman-vice president Place 4 Ernie Payne Place 5 Mr. Doug Sherrod Place 6 Mr. Danny Golden Place 7 Mr. Tim Langdale - President

5.2. The elements of change within school processes and school cultures: 1.)Conflict-in order for things to change then there must be some sort of disagreement over an aspect matter in the school that is not working before anyone works toward changing the school or even considers doing so. 2.)Staff involvement- In order for change to occur within a school it takes people working and doing something different to work toward that goal our change that they are wanting to make. 3.) New Behavior- in order for a change to occur there are behavior that are effecting what you are wanting to have changed. New behaviors must be learned or implemented allowing for leadership and trust that will lead to collaboration and to our next aspect team building 4.) Team Building- More then just having staff and people involved the people have to be able to work together and not be working toward different changes or goals. There must be shared decision making between all that are effected. These four components working together are what will bring changes within our schools as we are learning and growing and find need for changes to take place based on our learning.

6. Equality and opportunity Ch.8

6.1. How Class race and Gender affect educational outcomes: Class-With education being expensive, students in lower classes may need financial support. The books abilities and advantages that come with the wealth of the class effect the students academic achievement, even if they finish school. Teachers have been found to think differently of the different classes, tending to label them.  Race- race effects the amount of education that one may achieve. The opportunities that are available to each race vary, students literacy level and academic abilities vary greatly between race, leading to the different outcomes. Gender- In this age there are more opportunities for both genders as to before women did not have as many opportunities. Today women are less likely to drop out and have a higher level of reading and writing proficiency. Males have higher math proficiency. The opportunities for each gender have been becoming more equal as time goes by.

6.2. Two responses from the Coleman Study from1982- 1.) response from round two- looked deeply at the findings of the High school achievement findings, some seeing as significant and some seeing as insignificant. Used findings to compute the achievements made by schools. Found that the differences in public and catholic schools are big but, but when looking at the differences in learning the results are negligiable. Privates chools seemed to do it better for low income. 2. Response from round 3- Geoffrey Borman and Maritza looked at statistics to evaluate education finding that their statistics partially confirmed Coleman's findings. found that race socioeconomic background effect were students go to school. found race and class are predictors of student achievement.  said segregation is responsible for the achievement gap.

7. Ch. 9 Educational inequality

7.1. Cultural deprivation theory: lack of values, attitudes, and skills. It has been found that working class children are less likely to achieve what the other students are capable of already coming with certain skills and values. focuses on the need for instant gratification and the absence of role model's that the middle class has.

7.2. Four School centered explanations for educational inequality 1.)School financing: Schools have a varied amount of income depending on where they are located, this leads to different opportunities for the students within the schools. These schools are funded from local, state, and federal taxes leaving the more affluent communities to be able to pay more per pupil than poorer areas. Some say financial aid will equalize school funding 2.) Effective school research: Past research has found that school resources and quality do not adequately account for the academic achievement of students. If this is true then teachers cannot be held responsible but on the other hand if this is true then they cannot do much to make a difference. They found that a few of the characteristics of successful schools were a climate of high expectations for all, monitoring of learning, Strong and effective leadership by principal, and flexibility for teachers and administrators to adapt. 3.)Curriculum and pedagogical practices: Found that the type of schooling is directly related to the social class. Working class tends to have authoritarian and teacher directed pedagogical practices and vocationally or social efficiency curriculum at the secondary level. Middle class less authoritarian and more student centered pedagogical practices and humanistic liberal arts curriculum. Upper class has authoritarian teacher, Private schools, Classical-humanistic curriculum. 4.)Curriculum and ability grouping: In each school there is a grouping based on different aspect in Elementary it goes all the way from race, test scores, and teacher recommendation with curriculum being the same and in high school it is by ability and curriculum. Research has found that tracking has a significant effect on educational attainment. Some say tracking is discriminatory but others say that it is based on previous ability and aspirations and is not discriminatory. The difference in the tracks does explain the variation in achievement among students.

8. Ch. 10 Educational Reform

8.1. Two School Based reforms: 1. ) School business partnerships:  Many businesses formed formed partnerships with schools to hopefully  produce students that were prepared for the workforce upon graduation. Some of these partnerships include: The Boston compact, the committee to support Public schools, Philadelphia, and scholarships provided by businesses.  "Only 1.5 Percent of corporate giving was to primary and secondary public schools." ( Exploring Education. Sandovnik, 2013)  little evidence that they have done much to help improve  I thought this video was an awesome example of a school business partnership https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4bUbsMzb1aI 2.) Privatization- according to dictionary .com privatization is the transfering of a business industry or service from public to private ownership.  Here is a video regarding privatization https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LiYGhAt__m4 I also thought this video was very informative and but a neat twist on privatization.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=opcHQ_v6PuU " Privitization began with companies taking over the schools who due to low academic achievement essentially leading to more testing and higher standards. " It is clear that corporations see the multi billion dollar education industry as a lucrative market." ( Exploring education, Sandovnik,2013)

8.2. Two Social/economic, community, or political reforms. 1.)Full service and community schools:  looks at the idea of educating the community in order to solve educational inequality issues that start or begin in the home or community. They look at and try to resolve educational,  physical, psychological, and social needs of the families. Dryfoo's model and Canada's Harlem  Children's zone are two examples.  The schools are opened extended hours to serve as the facilities for meeting these needs. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6LlS_IkOnCw 2.) School finance- looking for ways to promote financial equality among schools has also led to many financial reforms. There were many  court cases such as  rodriques v. San Antonio which ruled that there was no constitutional right to an equal education. many have believed that there are unequal funding in schools. there where requirements for preschool and other programs put in place such as after school programs and summer programs. SFRA was a funding  formula put into place which caused funding to go where it was needed based on student needs. Here is an example of calling for a financial reform https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nn5e-fWIQYw

9. Ch.7 Curriculum and pedology

9.1. Curriculum Theory- Behaviorism- views a students mind as a black box. it views learning as regular expected responses. repetition and reinforcement are at the heart of instruction This theory looks at the curriculum meeting basic needs of students  Here is a video about all of the curriculum theories https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0YOqgXjynd0

9.2. Two Traditions of Teaching 1.) The Transformative tradition- this tradition is all about transforming the students in their abilities characteristics, skills. It also involves the taking away of undesirable traits through the gaining of knowledge. The time that we are in is what effects whats our schools and education is in is what effects the traits or abilities  that educators are striving to instill. These things have went to mainly religious salvation all the way to more secular and character traits and values.  It is often related to a potter working with clay with educators leaving their knowledge and skills imprinted on their students affecting them in many ways. This transformation that teachers help with is accomplished by personal modeling, Soft suasion, and use of narrative. Personal modeling involves the teacher modeling the behavior attitudes, and skills they want to instill. Soft suasion involves the teacher reversing roles with the students and letting them teach her/him by asking questions and letting them explore and explain. Use of narrative involves using stories, myths, parables to teach and instill values

9.2.1. The Mimetic Tradition-  a more scientific approach. derived from the word mimic and is centered on teachers transmitting knowledge to their students. students imitating the teacher. sees knowledge as being detachable and reproduced or in other words passed on saved by recording. brought back once lost through memory loss or in other ways.  The steps are 1.)test - find out if the student knows the material or to what extent 2.) present- present the material either with visual aides or by modeling 3.) perform/evaluate- students demonstrate what they have learned while teacher monitors 4.) correct performance/reward/fix- finding correct they praise and let them practice more 5.) incorrect performance enter remedial loop- begins remedial work finding where the students understanding lies 6. advance- moving to the next curriculum or unit of study