Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Purposes of Schooling (page 22)

1.2. Intellectual-cognitive skills in math, reading, science, history, and language

1.3. Political- to indoctrinate people into a particular order of patriotism (of, by, and for the people)

1.4. Social- to help people be sociable, productive members of society

1.5. Economic- prepare students for their occupation

1.6. Purpose of Schooling/Education- Society's ability to transmit knowledge, skills, values (page 21-22) What type of society do we wish to have? What constitutes the "good life" and a "good person?"

1.7. FAPE-Free and Appropriate Public Education

2. History of U.S. Education

2.1. Brown v. Board of Education

2.1.1. Plessy v. Ferguson

2.1.2. Educational facility can be the same but seperate

2.2. Plessy v. Ferguson- educational facility can be the same but seperate

2.3. Old Deluder Satan Law 1647

2.4. Massachusetts School Law of 1647

2.5. Harvard, 1636 and Yale,1701 were established before the country was created

2.6. Franklin saw education to support trades and common man

2.7. Jefferson supported public education

2.8. Meritocracy provided for higher education; Grammar Schools became present day elementary schools; Dame schools were for girls and Secondary schools were for boys and the elite. Latin Grammar Schools(Boston). Education in the South was mainly intended for upper class (Plantation owners).

2.9. Morrill Act est. land grants in each county and state for public education (1862). Education for women and slaves were limited. Women were educated for domestic purposes. Slaves were not educated with the exception of a few northern states that had special schools for African Americans. Emma Hart Willard, Troy University, 1821

2.9.1. The Committee of Ten, 19-893

2.9.2. The Committee of Ten was created by the National education Association which was chaired by Harvard University president, Charles Elliot

2.9.3. The committee's recommendations for high school in 1918 was; Health, command of fundamental process

2.9.3.1. Post World War II 1945-1980

2.9.3.2. Progressive v. Traditional

2.9.3.3. demands required more technical innovations and focused on social mobility. The battle; standards of an education versus the education opportunity for all. The college student movement for civil rights

2.9.3.4. University of Michigan

2.9.3.5. University of California at Berkley

2.9.3.6. San Francisco State University

2.9.3.7. Kent State University

2.10. Elementary/Secondary Education Act 1695 provided for special needs students (1993 IDEA)

2.10.1. Lee v. Macon- 1966, Lee's son had no disability, but because of his behavioral problem he was placed in a special education classroom. The court case was settled in 2001

3. Sociological Perspectives

3.1. Effective Schools

3.1.1. strong leadership

3.1.2. safe and orderly environment

3.1.3. high expectations that all can learn

3.1.4. continual review of student progress

3.1.5. a clear mission

3.2. Theoretical Perspectives

3.2.1. Functional Theories- pose that society is best when a consensus rules

3.2.2. Conflict Theories- poses that influential groups impose their will on subordinate groups. Schools are oppressive and students are rebellious. They are forced to attend

3.2.3. Interactional Theories- suggests that schools are middle class organizations and lower social classes are at a disadvantage

3.3. Effects of schooling on individuals

3.3.1. The higher the social class of a student the higher level of educational achievement

3.3.2. Differences between schools is not a significant impact

3.3.3. Academically oriented schools have higher levels of student achievement

3.3.4. Employment- More education results in better jobs and opportunities

3.3.5. Education and Mobility- Education is the great equalizer in the status race.

3.4. Inside the schools

3.4.1. Curriculum is determined by those who want to perpetuate certain values and beliefs

3.4.2. Not all students study the same curriculum

3.4.3. Curriculum determines who goes to college

3.4.4. Cultural transmission, selective channeling of opportunity and social mobility are determined at the school level and its curriculum.

3.5. Teacher Behavior

3.5.1. Teachers may have as many as 1000 interactions with students on a daily basis.

3.5.2. Teacher expectations directly influence student achievement

3.5.3. Self-fulfilling prophecy has a direct impact on student success.

3.5.4. The more teachers demanded from their students results in higher student self esteem and success.

3.6. Student Peer Groups and Alienation

3.6.1. Rebellious students and violence in schools is just for attention

3.6.2. Nerd, coolness and athletes

3.6.3. Four major types of college students includes; Careerists, Intellectuals, strivers, and the unconnected

3.7. Current Educational Crisis

3.7.1. One third of children are at-risk of failing

3.7.2. One fourth of preschool children live in poverty

3.7.3. Fifteen million are reared by single mothers

3.7.3.1. adksjfhalseurfhad

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. Particular Philosophies

4.1.1. Idealism(Socrates and Plato

4.1.2. Dialectic and "dialectical approach"

4.1.3. "doctrine of reminiscence"

4.2. Idealist in education encourages students to search for the truth. With truth comes responsibility. Education is a transformation

4.3. Role of a teacher

4.3.1. to be a role model in the classroom

4.3.2. to provoke thought

4.3.3. to bring out what is already in their mind

4.4. Idealism

4.4.1. Methods of Instruction

4.4.1.1. Discussion

4.4.1.2. Questioning

4.4.1.3. Lecture on material not presented in text

4.4.2. Curriculum

4.4.2.1. Study the great works

4.4.2.2. all new problems have their roots in the past

4.4.2.3. Study history

4.4.2.4. Great literature, sciences, math, history, philosophy

4.4.2.5. a basic core foundation

4.5. Realism

4.5.1. The material world is real

4.5.2. It exist without anyone perceiving

4.5.3. The real world exist before ideas exist

4.5.4. Aristotle develop a system of logical thinking

4.5.5. Syllogism or a system of logical thinking A major premise A minor premise Conclusion Understand the facts then make assumptions and conclusions.

4.5.6. Notable Realists Thomas Aquinas Francis Bacon John Locke (Blank slate or tabula rasa) Goal of Education Understand the real world then apply science and logic to solve problems

4.5.7. Role of the teacher Present ideas in a clear and consistent manner Enable students to examine from an objective approach Methods of Instruction Lecture Question and Answer Discussion Curriculum; Consist of a basic body of knowledge

4.6. Pragmatism

4.6.1. John Dewey

4.6.2. George Sanders Pierce

4.6.3. William James

4.6.4. John Locke

4.6.5. Jean-Jacques Rousseau

4.6.6. Learning through experience (experiential learning “What is practical has meaning and value” The approach to learning is by scientific inquiry. Pragmatism encourages people to find processes that work to achieve their desired outcome. Ex. Problem – speculative thought – action - results

4.6.6.1. Philosophies that were born from Pragmatism

4.6.6.1.1. Progressivism- John Dewey

4.6.6.1.2. Social Reconstructionist- George Counts

4.6.6.2. The Goal of Education

4.6.6.2.1. Provide students wit knowledge to improve society

4.6.6.3. Role of the Teacher

4.6.6.3.1. facilitator of learning activities

4.6.6.4. Methods of Instruction

4.6.6.4.1. learn individually as well as in groups

4.6.6.5. Curriculum

4.6.6.5.1. Integrated core subjects, teaching across the curriculum

4.7. Existentialism and Phenomenology

4.7.1. Existence precedes essence

4.7.2. We are who we are as a result of our decisions

4.7.3. Perception of the world is based on one's ability to make sense of it

4.7.4. Goal of Education- The focus is on the individual, cognitively and affectively

4.7.5. Education liberates the individual from a chaotic world

4.7.6. Role of the teacher- The reflective teacher enables students to be reflective students. Is is a very personal teacher/student relationship

4.7.6.1. Students must become "wide awake"

4.7.7. Methods of Instruction- Each student has a different learning style. Help students understand the world through posing questions, generating activities and working together

4.7.8. Curriculum- Humanities are heavily emphasized. Students should be exposed to the harsh and good realities of the world

4.8. Neo-Marxism

4.8.1. The purpose of education is a capitalist society is to perpetuate the ideology of the dominant class

4.8.2. Neo-Marxist- A capitalist society should be economically proficient to allow its citizens to live productive and decent lives

4.8.3. Goal of Education- schools perpetuate the ideology of the dominant society and legitimize it to all other groups. Education enables individuals to understand the weaknesses of the dominant society and propose alternatives

4.8.4. Role of a Teacher- engage students to critically examine the world which is similar to "wide awake"

4.8.5. Curriculum- Socially constructed. Teachers must have a command of how the curriculum can be socially manipulated

4.9. Post Modernists and Critical Theory

4.9.1. The Goal of Education is to explore differences and to explore possibilities that may seem inherently impossible.

4.9.2. Working together to achieve balance and equity through democratic transformation.

4.9.3. Role of the Teacher – an agent of change

4.9.4. Curriculum and Instruction p. 196 Democratic processes Teachers, students, communities are all involved in the process of education. Schools and curriculum are agents of change.

5. Schools as Organizations

5.1. Governance; those powers are not mentioned in the constitution are explicitly delegated to the states. Each state is responsible for education. The U.S. Department of Education was created in 1970. The U.S. Department of education has very little power

5.2. Centralization 55 million students are educated at the cost of $650 billion. 1930’s there were 128,000 public school districts. !980’s there were slightly under 16,000 districts in the U.S. The average elementary school has 450 students. High schools have 856.

5.3. Student Composition in Public Schools 53.5 % are white Of the states, 16 have less than 50% white Ten states have no minorities Large states are heavily multiracial. New York City is 85.6% minority. Los Angeles is 91.3% minority Detroit is 97.4% minority.

5.4. Private Schools

5.4.1. Most private schools are located on the east and west coasts.

5.4.2. Connecticut has the most and Wyoming has the least

5.4.3. In the 1980's and 1990's studies show that private schools were better learning environments

5.4.4. Thus, school choice has a significant credibility

5.5. International Comparisons

5.5.1. In other countries individuals go through rigorous academic rites of passage. This design separates those that can and those that cannot as well as those that have and those that have not.

5.6. Great Britain

5.6.1. In 19th Century England the rich had education in privates schools. The poor did not get educated. The establishment of a national education system was opposed by the Church of England and the Roman Catholic Church. The 1944 Education created free elem. And sec. education for all. England decentralized the education system which had been fundamentally elitists.

5.6.2. Margaret Thatcher and conservatives tried to privatize public education by created parental choice and reorganizing the administrative structure, but with very limited success. The 1988 Education Reform Act created a more centralized curriculum and systtem of national assessments.

5.6.3. Schools are still very stratified socially and economically. Comprehensive high schools which prepared students for the workforce have been eliminated.

5.6.3.1. France

5.6.3.1.1. France has a very elitists educational system. Only the very elite have the opportunity to move up educationally. They have schools for the poor and schools for the elite. The top students go to the grandes e’coles. The government controls everything down to the classroom. The France system is very competitive.

5.7. School Processes and Cultures

5.7.1. Schools are separate social organizations for these reasons:

5.7.1.1. They have definitive populations

5.7.1.2. They have political structures

5.7.1.3. They represent a multitude of social groups

5.7.1.4. They are prevailed by the "we feeling"

5.7.1.5. They have their own special culture

5.7.2. Teachers are in conflict with students. Curriculum v. social goals of students.

5.7.3. Administrators and teachers are in conflict. Structure v. teaching

5.7.4. Communities are in conflict with administration

5.7.5. Studies show that the principal establishes the goals levels of academic and social expectations and the effectiveness of discipline

5.7.6. Effecting change in schools is difficult at its minimum. Bureaucracies control everything focusing on rules, regulations and conformity. Bureaucratic rationality suppress creativity. Changing a school culture requires patience, skill and good will. “Schools of Tomorrow…Today Project” in New York City Schools focuses on child-centered teaching.

5.8. Teachers, Teaching and Professionalism

5.8.1. Reality is hard to ignore. Everyday life is a struggle for survival. John Goodlad says that teachers must have a major part in reform. In 2008, 75% of all teachers are women. Thirty-seven percent have B.S. Sixty percent have Master’s degrees. One percent had doctorates. Average age is 46. A shortage of teachers exists.

5.8.2. High school seniors indicate that less than 10% will be a teacher. Requirements according to NCLB A college degree Full certification. Demonstrable content knowledge in the subject area. Praxis tests are require in most states. Each state has a different test score acceptance level for certification.

5.8.3. The nature of teaching requires many hats and is very demanding as a result. This multiple roles are a significant factor in teacher burn-out. Teachers have had to develop all kinds of interpersonal skills. More of an artist than a technical teacher. Most effective feedback is from students. Key to teaching is exercising control. Control precedes teaching. A classroom must have control to be an effective learning environment. Turn each day into a special event

5.8.4. Underqualified teachers Out of filed teachers Prevalent in poorer schools. Poor administrative decisions. Community pressure. Other disciplines are being allowed to become certified teachers such as Teach for America.

5.8.5. Other professions have more autonomy and professional development. Teachers are expected to be created autonomous individuals but conditions of employment. Leave very little room for autonomy, thoughtfulness and expertise.

5.8.6. To effect teacher professionalism means shred decision making. Bureaucracy tries to make students conform and expects teachers to create productive individuals. Teacher are at the center of this conflict. Standardized generic education limits teachers creativity and risk-taking.

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. Influences

6.1.1. Social Influences

6.1.2. Political Influences

6.1.3. Societies' Influences

6.1.4. Cultural INfluences

6.1.5. Special Interest

6.1.6. Historically

6.1.6.1. Idealists say we should teach the great works of mankind

6.1.6.2. Conservatist say we should return to a humanist foundation

6.1.6.3. Teach math, science, reading, history, foreign languages and emphasize the influence of western civilization

6.1.6.4. Conservatist of the 1980's and 1990's say we should teach what is fundamentally basic to a common culture. Page 282

6.1.6.5. Social Efficiency Curriculum advocates say that we should reflect and teach what is important for society to be functional and productive

6.1.6.6. Different needs for different people was their concern for curriculum

6.1.6.7. Social Efficiency became the cornerstone of Progressivism

6.1.6.8. Conservatist say that social efficiency has diluted the curriculum to the point that it has lost the purpose of transmitting one common culture

6.2. Social meliorists- reform society through schools also known as social reconstruction

6.3. Communities reflect what is important to them as a society

6.4. The social class composition of the school and community have determined what is of value in the curriculum. Page 285

6.4.1. Political influences of the curriculum have determines and set battle lines for domination of what should be taught.

6.4.2. Business, religion, and wealthy all determine what is taught.

6.4.3. Private schools are gaining popularity because parents choose schools that support their belief

6.4.4. Other influences on the curriculum

6.4.4.1. Evolutionists

6.4.4.2. Creationists

6.4.4.3. Science and Math

6.4.4.4. Nation at Risk

6.4.4.5. NCLB

6.4.4.6. RTT

6.5. Sociology of the curriculum and society influences the curriculum

6.5.1. Formal curriculum- what is cognitively taught (subjects)

6.5.2. Informal or Hidden curriculum- taught but not obvious to sight

6.5.3. Null curriculum- what is not taught but is learned (values of the community)

6.5.4. www.ALEX.state.al.us

6.5.5. Social order determines the curriculum. Page 292

6.5.6. A capitalist society perpetuates the surriculum for maintaining social order. Page 293

6.5.7. Multiculturalists influence on curriculum has promoted a diverse needs classroom. Page 294

6.5.8. Conservatists argue that multicultural curriculum had diluted western civilization values. They say we have melted and lost our western cultural identity.

6.5.9. White protestant is the dominant group of society

6.6. Pedagogic Influences

6.6.1. Mimetic and Transformative approaches to teaching

6.6.2. Mimetic is conservative and says that there is a basic core of knowledge to be learned by all.

6.6.3. Transformative says that students needs should be the main focus of the curriculum. Page 296

6.6.4. Students are tracked and directed to a specific curriculum such as advanced diplomas and vocational diplomas

6.6.5. Tracking begins in elementary and continues through secondary by means of testing

6.6.5.1. The Effects of the Curriculum

6.6.5.1.1. Do students actually learn what is taught? Student "needs" assessment to start off. Need to identify what students actually know and what has been taught.

6.6.5.1.2. Closing the gap and how? When determining  the gap, you need to find out what students already know and what they don't know.

6.6.5.1.3. Schooling does have and impact on learning as well as effective school characteristics.

6.6.5.1.4. Do all students have the same educational experience even though they attend the same classes. No.

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Do you have the following beliefs?; Public education has been conceived as a social vehicle for minimizing the importance of wealth and class as a determinant of who shall get ahead. Americans believe that hard work, thrift and a bit of luck should determine who gets ahead.

7.2. Calculating Educational and Life Outcomes Social stratification is a structural characteristic of societies. Human differences do not cause social stratification; social stratification causes human differences. P. 339

7.3. Social stratification – three systems Caste- a persons’ social level is determined by race or religion. Estate systems – a persons’ social level is determined by family value and worth. Class systems – a persons’ worth is determined by their ability to overcome by personal achievement. P. 340

7.3.1. The lower classes in America have had their ability to overcome decreased because of inflation. Educational achievement is directly related to family achievement and social class. Educational achievement is directly related to financial success. P. 340

7.4. Class

7.4.1. Schools represent the middle and upper class. Parental income is directly related to educational achievement and test performance. P. 342

7.5. Race

7.5.1. Race has a direct impact on how much educational attainment a person achieves. Minorities do not receive the same educational opportunities as white Americans. P. 343

7.6. Gender

7.6.1. In the last twenty years significant gains have been made to equalize gender educational and professional attainment. Disparities still exist in education and job salaries. P. 343

7.7. SAT and ACT test have become the determining factor for educational success. ACT and SAT test have favored the white Americans and upper and middle class students. P. 357

7.8. Students with special needs have experienced tremendous gains in educational opportunities due to PL 94-142 or the EHA. Education of Handicapped 1975. IDEA 1996 REI – Regular Educational Initiative or mainstreaming. P. 364

7.9. School Differences and Educational Outcomes

7.9.1. Do differences in schools contribute to student success? Does where you live determine your educational success? P. 366

7.10. The Coleman Study 1966

7.10.1. Coleman found that school organizational differences did not contribute to student outcomes as much as student body composition between schools. P. 367

7.10.2. As a result lower class students should attend schools with the middle and upper class to improve their educational success. P. 367

7.11. The Coleman Study 1982

7.11.1. Private school students outperform public school students.

7.11.2. The difference is in how much more demanding private schools are of their students. P. 368

7.11.3. Differences in schools do make a difference.

7.12. Coleman Study 2010 Challenges

7.12.1. Where a student attends school is often related to race and socioeconomic background. The racial and socioeconomic composition of a school has a greater impact on student outcomes than an individual's race or socioeconomic status. P. 369

7.12.2. Therefore, schools do make a difference

7.13. School Segregation

7.13.1. Despite decreases in segregation, racial and ethnic segregation is increasing.

7.13.2. Evidence shows that highly segregated schools have lower achievement levels than integrated schools and minorities do better in integrated schools. P. 372-373

7.14. Educational Attainment and Economic Achievement

7.14.1. College graduates have higher salaries. P.375

7.14.2. The amount of education is directly related to life chances.

7.14.3. Life chances are directly related to social level and race; however, schools do have a slight impact. P. 377

7.14.4. Education provides social and economic mobility but for the most part perpetuates the social classes. P. 377

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. Sociological Explanations of Inequality

8.1.1. Functionalist Theorists support the idea that each students’ success is determined by their own hard work and desire to succeed.

8.1.2. Conflict Theorists support the idea that student success is affected by their environment.

8.1.3. Interactionists Theorists support that student success is determined by a combination of factors such as family, social class schools and environment.

8.2. Other factors that influence student success are;

8.2.1. Student-centered factors such as family, peer group, community, culture and the student.

8.2.2. School-centered factors include teachers, teaching methods, curriculum, school climate and teacher expectations.

8.3. Multidimensional factors include everything that affects student success.

8.4. Student Centered Explanations p. 421 Genetic Differences Explanations p. 422 Cultural Deprivation Explanations p. 423 Cultural Differences Explanations p. 423-427

8.5. School Centered Explanations School Financing p. 428 Effective Schools p. 431 Between School Differences p. 433 Curriculum and Pedagogic Within School Differences p. 434 Curriculum and Ability Grouping p. 434-436

8.6. Gender and Schooling p. 436-438

9. Educational Reform

9.1. Characteristics of highly effective teachers

9.1.1. A 'Calling' for the profession

9.1.2. Professional knowledge

9.1.3. Personal qualities

9.1.4. With-it-ness

9.1.5. Instructional Effectivieness

9.1.6. Good communicator

9.1.7. Street smart

9.1.8. Willing to go the extra mile

9.1.9. Lifelong learner

9.2. Reform in education 1980's to 2012 page 512

9.2.1. Two waves of attack;

9.2.1.1. The first was concerned with accountability and achievement.

9.2.1.2. The second was concerned with the processes of the school

9.2.1.3. Top down management from the federal government. Page 513

9.3. Federal Involvement

9.3.1. America 2000 page 514

9.3.2. Goals 2000 page 515

9.3.3. No Child Left Behind page 517

9.3.4. Race to the Top page 518

9.4. Approaches to Reform

9.4.1. Neo Liberal Approach

9.4.2. Societal and Community Approach

9.5. School based reforms

9.5.1. School choice

9.5.2. Charter Schools

9.5.3. Tuition Vouchers

9.5.4. Intersectional Choice Plans (public to private)

9.5.5. Intrasectional Choice Plans (any public school in district)

9.5.6. School- Business Partnerships page 526-527

9.5.7. Privitization of schools

9.5.8. School to work programs

9.6. Teacher education programs page 528- Three Major points

9.6.1. More intellectual demands in education programs

9.6.2. Attract and retain competent teachers

9.6.3. Reorganize educational academic and professional development

9.6.4. Plan page 532

9.6.5. Teacher quality page 531

9.6.6. The effective school movement page 531

9.6.7. plan on; page 532

9.6.8. Highly Effective School Characteristics page 533

9.7. Societal, Community, Economic and Political Reforms page 535

9.7.1. State takeover: pros and cons page 536

9.8. School Finance Reforms page 538

9.8.1. Where you are born or live determines your advantage for a good education

9.9. Full Service Schools

9.9.1. Repair and educate the community: page 539

9.10. Connecting school community and societal reforms page 540

9.10.1. A theory of educational problems and reforms page 541

9.10.1.1. Solutions and Proposals page 543-545

9.10.1.2. Integrative Realm page 542- basic sills and knowledge is the focus for school improvement and student achievement

9.10.1.3. Developmental Realm- focus is on developing the whole child by having schools become more humane institutions

9.10.1.4. Conclusion- Do the best with what you have that is within YOUR CONTROL!!

10. Limits of Promises

10.1. Achievement Gap- Difference between what students know and what they should know

10.2. Needs Assessment

10.3. Assessment Issues

10.3.1. Teaching the test

10.3.1.1. Authentic/True Assessments